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3 3333 05823 6056 







Four hundred and twenty-five copies of this 
book were printed on American hand- 
made paper and fifty-seven copies 
on Imperial Japan paper, in 
the month of June, 


Tbe ProtefAtit Tutor for roath. 

A/TR- John Rogers, Minifter of rteGofpel, was the 
*-'* tirft Martvr in Queen Mary's Reign, and was 
burnt in Smithfidd, February 14, 1554. His Wife, 
with nine fmall children, and one at her.Breafr, fol- 
low'd him to the frake, with which forro'.vful light he 
was not in the leaft daunted ; but with wonderful pa- 
tience dy'd coura^ioufly for the Gofpel of Tefiis Chrifr 
Soroe few Days before his Death, he writ the following 
^xhortation to his children. 


Tve ear, mv Children, to my Words, 

Whom God hath dearly bought,. 
Lav up his Laws within your hearts, 
and pt int them in your Thoughts \ 
I leave you here a little Bpok, 

for you t > look upon, 
That you may fee your father s Face, 

when he is dead and gone. 
Afho for the nope of heav'uly 

while he did here remain, 
lave over all his golden years 

to prifon and to pain : 
Vhere I among my Iron Baiids, 
inclofed in the dark, 
iot many days before my death 
1 did compofe this Work, 



From the Protestant Tutor. London : 1716 








' . 5 ** * /, _ 



< p i 




O .. 











, . . . . 







I Reprint of the New English Tutor . . 137 

II Reprint of Rogers's Exhortation Unto His 

Children 249 

III Cotton Mather's Plea for Catechising . . 261 

IV Clarke's Saying the Catechism . . . 275 

V Reprint of the Holy Bible in Verse . . 283 

VI Bibliography of the New England Primer 297 

VII Variorum of the New England Primer . 321 

INDEX 347 



. . 6 



I Burning of John Rogers . 

From the Protestant Tutor, London : 1716. 

II Burning of John Rogers .... 

From the New England Primer, Boston : 776.2. 

Ill The Royal Primer, title page 

London, circa 175060. 

IV A Guide For the Child and Youth, title 
page ........ 

London : 1725. 

V First Mention of the New England Primer 16 

From Newman's Neivs from the Stars, Boston : l6go. 

VI Bradford Fragment .... 

Facsimile of four pages, circa 1688-1700. 

VII Rhymed Alphabet .... 

From a Guide For the Child and Youth, London : 1725. 

VIII Rhymed Alphabet .... 

From the New England Primer, Boston : 1762. 

IX Alphabet Cuts 

From the New England Primer, Boston : [n. d. ]. 

X The Queen 

From the New England Primer, Boston : 1737 '. 




x Illustrations 


XI King George the Second . . -53 

From the Nciv England Primer, Boston : /7J7- 

XII King George the Third .... 78 

From the Neiu England Primer, Boston : 776.2. 

XIII King George the Third .... 104 

From the Neiu England Primer, Providence : /775- 

XIV Binding of New England Primer (inside) 136 

From the Ne r w England Primer, Boston : 1762. 

XV The Protestant Tutor, title page . . 137 

London : B. Harris, Ijl6* 

XVI The President of the United States, (Wash- 
ington) 176 

From the Neiu England Primer, Boston : [. d. ] 

XVII The Hon. John Hancock ... 208 

From the American Primer, Boston : Ifj6. 

XVIII The Hon. Samuel Adams, Esquire . 226 

From the Neiu England Primer , Hartford : IJfJ. 

XIX The Pope or Man of Sin .... 248 

From the Neiv England Primer, Boston : I'J^'J- 

XX Burning of John Rogers ... 251 

From the Neiu England Primer, Boston : IffO. 

XXI Cotton's Milk for Babes, title page . 261 

London : 1646. 

XXII The Shorter Catechism, title page . 275 

Printed by B. Harris, Boston : l6qi. 

XXIII The New England Primer, title page . 299 

Boston : /7J7- 

XXIV The New England Primer, title page . 300 

Boston : 1^62. 

XXV The American Primer, title page . . 303 

Boston : /77<5. 

Illustrations xi 


XXVI The New England Primer, title page . 306 

Boston [n. d. J 

XXVII The New England Primer, title page . 307 

Nc-ivburyport [;;. d. ] 

XXVIII Fleet's Advertisement of the Primer . 312 

From Wigglesivorths Day of Doom, Boston : If 51 ' . 

XXIX Cuts of Animals 340 

From the New England Primer, Neiuburyport [. </.] 




MR. JOH* ROGERS, Mintflr of the 
Gfofpel in London, was the flrft Mar- 
tyr in Queen Marys Re'tgn, and was burnt 
at Smith/ielj f February \^\i 155:4, His 
Wife Wiih n.'me Cfhall Children, and one 
at. her Breaft. following Mm to the Stake; 
with v/hich Sorrowful Sj'ght he vva$ not in 
the Ifeaft daunted, but with wonnderful Pati- 
nctdiecj cwrageoofly forthe'Gofpelof Jefus 
Cbfift. Sstst 

From the New England Primer. Boston -.1^62 




N the apocryphal poem of John Rogers " unto his 

children' which was included in every New Eng- The New En- 
land Primer, he said : S land Primer 

a mirror of 
" / leave you here a little booke Puritanism 

For you to looke vpon, 
That you may see your father' s face 
When I am dead and gon" 

No better description of the New England Primer itself 
could be penned. As one glances over what may truly be 
entitled " The Little Bible of New England", and reads its 
stern lessons, the Puritan mood is caught with absolute 
faithfulness. Here was no easy road to knowledge and to 
salvation ; but in prose as bare of beauty as the whitewash 
of their churches, in poetry as rough and stern as their 
storm-torn coast, in pictures as crude and unfinished as 
their own glacial-smoothed boulders, between stiff oak cov- 
ers, which symbolized the contents, the children were led, 
until, from being unregenerate, and as Jonathan Edwards 
said, " young vipers, and infinitely more hateful than 
vipers " to God, to that happy state when, as expressed by 


Judge Sewall's child, they were afraid they " should goe to 
hell " and were " stirred up dreadfully to seek God." No 
earthly or heavenly rewards were offered to its readers. 
The Separatists had studied their Bible too carefully not to 
know that a future life of bliss was far more an instinctive 
longing of mankind than an Old Testament promise. 
They were too imbued with the faith of Judaism not to 
preach a religion of stern justice, and the oldest Puritan 
literature and even laws read strangely Hebraic to nine- 
teenth century eyes. The religion of Christ, a faith based 
on love and mercy, received less sympathy and less teaching, 
from their divines than probably from any other sect nom- 
inally Christian. Salvation from hell was what they promised; 
and that the terror might be the greater, God was made 
sterner and more cruel than any living judge, that all might 
be brought to realize how slight a chance even the least 
erring had of escaping eternal damnation. 

But in this very accentuation of the danger lay the 
Education the strength of Puritanism. No mass or prayer, no priest or 
Strengt oj p as t or stood between man and his Creator, each soul being 

Puritanism ' . 

morally responsible tor its own salvation ; and this tenet 
forced every man to think, to read, to reason. As the 
Reformation became possible only when the Bible was 
cheapened by printed versions, so the moment each man 
could own and study the Book Puritanism began. Unless, 
however, man could read, independence was impossible, for 
illiteracy compelled him to rely upon another for his knowl- 
edge of the Word ; and thus, from its earliest inception, 
Puritanism, for its own sake, was compelled to foster edu- 
cation. Probably no better expression of this fact can be 


found than in an order of the " General Corte " of the Col- 
ony of the Massachusetts Bay, in 1647, tnat : 


It being one cheife piect of yt ould deluder, Satan, to keepe men 

from the knowledge of y e Scriptures, as in form r times by keeping Reso ^' ve f 

v m in an unknown tongue, so in these latt r times by pswadino; from 

Court of the 
y e use or tongues, y f so at least y e true sence & meaning of y e origi- 


nall might be clouded by false glosses of saint seeming deceivers, se tt$ Bay in 
yt learning may not be buried in y e grave of o r fath rs in y e church 
& comonwealth, the Lord assisting o r endeavo r s, 

It is therefore ord r ed, y l ev r y towneship in this iurisdiction, 
aft r y e Lord hath increased y m to y e number of 50 household", shall 
then forthw th appoint one w th in their towne to teach all such chil- 
dren as shall resort to him to write & reade."* 

Independency, no less than Papacy and Episcopacy, was 
able to forsee the danger of individualism in that it threat- Dan s er f ln - 
ened to result in a man's not rinding in the Bible the one and Necessit 
belief by which alone the Puritans held he could be saved. f or Confot 
Think for himself he must, but it was his duty to think i( j> 
what the Separatists thought, and so churches were gathered, 
and " teachers " as they were first called were chosen, 
who told their congregations what they were to think for 
themselves. Very quickly organized sects followed, which 
formulated creeds and catechisms, demanded belief in 
them, and tortured, imprisoned and exiled the recalcitrant. 
Finding that other men, like themselves, could not be made 
by punishment to accept other than their own opinions, the 
children were taken in their earliest years, and drilled and 
taught to believe what they were to think out for them- 
selves when the age of discretion was reached. And this 

1 "Records of the Massachusetts Bay," n. t 

4. Introduction 

was the function of the New England Primer. With it 
millions were taught to read, that they might read the Bible ; 
and with it these millions were catechised unceasingly, that 
they might find in the Bible only what one of many priest- 
hoods had decided that book contained. 

Romish Abece- 

1"^HIS method of securing uniformity by uniting 
alphabet and creed was as old as printed books. 
* 11'AI I I'll 

Prymers The Enschede Abecedanum, which has even been 

_^-^r\j claimed to be the first specimen of printing with type, and 
which certainly was printed in the fifteenth century, 1 con- 
tained besides the alphabet, the Pater Noster, the Ave 
Maria, the Credo and two prayers, being the elementary 
book of the Romish Church. So too, a larger book of 
Catholicism, for more advanced students, was the well- 
known " Book of Hours " ; which, translated from the 
Latin text into English, 2 was called " The Prymer of Salis- 
bury use", and was printed as early as 1490. As need 
hardly be said there are many later editions of both these 

When the Reformation began to work among the people 
Henry rnitb' s j n England, among its signs was the printing of unauthorized 
Prymers and primers> and Henry the VIII. issued "proclamations" 

AL lj C* S * 1 

and "injunctions" against these, in an endeavor to keep his 
people true to Catholicism. Very soon, however, he exper- 
ienced a change of heart not merely towards his wedded wife, 

1 De Vinne's " Invention of Printing," 2.90. 
3 "The Prymer of Salysbury use." Paris : 1490. 


but incidentally as well, towards his mother church, and in 
1534, as one method of fighting the Pope, he allowed to be Henry 
prepared and issued what is known as the " Reform r y me am 
Primer ",' designed to teach his people what they should 
believe. In this however, his desire to have done with 
the Church of Rome, led him to act too hastily, for in less 
than a year, he varied his belief and licensed the issue to his 
people of a " Goodly Prymer in Englysshe" 1 that they might 
know the only true and revised to date religion. Yet a 
a third time new light came to the head of the English 
church, and in a third primer, known as the " Henry 
Vlllth Primer", 3 the King marked out a new and only 
path to heaven for his subjects. All these primers con- 
tained portions intended for children, such as " a fruitful 
and very Christian instruction for children ", and since the 
Romish Church had a preliminary book to its Prymer, so 
Henry had his, called "The A B C", 4 the earliest known 
copy of which contains the alphabet, the Lord's Prayer, 
the Hail Mary, the Creed, various Graces for before and 
after " dyner " and for " fysshe dayes ", and the " ten com- 
aundements ". The distinction between the two was well 

1 "A Prymer in Englyshe with certeyne prayers and goodly meditations, very necessary 
for all people that understonde not the Latyne tongue. Cum privilegio Regali." [London, 

2 " A goodly Prymer in Englysshe, newly corrected and printed, with certeyne godly 
Meditations and Prayers added to the same, very necessarie and profitable for all them that 
ryghte assuredly understande not ye Latine and Greke tongues. Cum privilegio regali." 
[London, 1535.] 

3 "The Primer set forth by the King's Majesty, and his Clergy to be taught, learned, 
and read and none other be used throughout all his dominions. 1545- Cum privilegio ad 
imprimendum solum." 

* " The ABC bothe in Latyn and in Englysh." [London, 1538.] 


indicated by a little poem at the end of the ABC 1 printed 
in black letter in 1636 : 

This little Catechisme learned 

by heart {for so it ought) 
The Primer next commanded is 

for Children to be taught, 

As was not surprising, many of the King's subjects be- 
spreadofdu- came sornew hat unsettled in their belief, and even de- 
wrsity of veloped a tendency to form one not ordained by his 
Primers majesty. Furthermore these wayward people declined to 
"~|T^J use the prymers printed " cum privilegio regali " but pur- 
chased heretical books put forth without authority, so that 
Henry in the preface of his later primers, took notice in 
evident disgust " of the diversitie of primer books that ar 
now abrod, whereof ar almost innumerable sortes, which 
mynister occasion of contentions and vain disputations, 
rather then to edify " ; to end this difficulty he com- 
manded " one uniforme ordre of al such bookes throughout 
al our dominions, both to be taught unto children and also 
to be used for ordinary prayers of all our people not learned 
in the latyn tong " ; and for that purpose, 

" set furth thys Primer or boke of prayers in Englysh to be fre- 
Henry VUlths quented and used in and throughout all places of oure said realmes 
injunction anc j dominions, as well of the elder people, as also of the youth, for 
their common and ordinary prayers, willing, commaundyng and 
streghtly chargyng that for the better bringing up of youth in the 

1 "The ABC. The Catechism : That is to say, An Introduction to be taught and 
learned of every Childe, before he be brought to be confirmed by the Bishop." [London? 



Royal Primer; 

Or, an eafy j^nd pleafant 

Or, an eafy j^nd pleafant 
Guide to the Art of Reading. 

AothorisM by 


To be ofcd throughout 

ftr 7. Pfeivltery, at the 
in St. fe*?t Church ysrd, end 
Colliwt af Satijkiirf. ( Price bound 3 d. ) 


Introduction 7 

knowledge of theyr duty towardes God, their prince, and all others 
in their degre, every Scholemaster and bringer-up of yong beginners 
in lernyng nexte after their ABC now bi us also set furthe, do 
teache this primer or boke of ordinary prayers unto them in Eng- 
lyshe, and that the youth customably and ordinarily use the same 
until thei be of competant understanding and knowledge to perceive 
it in Latyn. At which time they may at their libertie either use 
this primer in Englishe, or that whiche is by oure authoritie likewyse 
made in the Latyn tong, in all poinctes correspondent unto this in 
Englysche." 1 

This injunction it is needless to say was little heeded. 
The English King could depose the vicegerent of Heaven, Multiphca- 
even though the latter was infallible, but he could not 

ana cate- 

overcome the common people. Faiths and Creeds mul- 
tiplied until the famous Council of Trent complained of 
the " infinite " number of the " little books '" and stated that 
there had come to be " as many catechisms as there are prov- 
inces in Europe, nay, almost as many as the cities, are circu- 
lated, all of which abound with heresies, whereby the minds of 
the simple are deceived." Their majesties Henry, Edward, 
Mary, Elizabeth and James, though each having a different 
faith, successively forbade, seized and burned these unauthor- 
ized books ; and whipped, imprisoned or burned preachers 
and printers, but it was all unavailing, and a little over a cen- 
tury and a half from the time that Henry changed the 
religion of his people, the people decided that it was easier 
to change their King than to conform in their religion. 
With the flight of James II. ended all attempts to prevent 
the people from having such primers and catechisms as 

1 "The Prymer both in Englishe and Latin." [London, 1545.] 



they chose, leaving behind nothing but a restriction in the 
printing of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer, 
which to this day are monopoly books in Great Britain. 

and unauthor- 
ized Primers 
and A B Cs 

Union of the 
Primer and 


"A HE authorized primers were not school books 
being rather primary hence "primer" manuals 
of church service, and indeed the forerunners 
of the " Book of Common Prayer ". Moreover they 
were handsomely printed, and thus were expensive. 
The authorized ABC which sold at a moderate price 
contained but the most elementary matter. It must 
have very quickly occurred to booksellers that to combine 
the two into one work would be a good idea, but as 
they were both monopoly books most printers were 
debarred from doing it and to the privileged printers 
there was no object in producing them at a low price. It 
was left, therefore, to the publishers of Separatist per- 
suasion, to take advantage of the larger sale that could be 
obtained, and very quickly they were producing at low 
prices, books which contained the sum of both, and no 
doubt this cheapness and convenience played a prominent 
part in the spread of dissent. It was this union of the A 
B C and the Primer, which led to children's books being 
called by the latter title. 

The earliest of this combination of school book and 
catechism, so far discovered, was Bastingius' f Catechisme of 
Christiane Religion, taught in scholes ", which had the A 
B C prefixed to it, and was printed in Edinburgh in 1591. 


In 1631 Bishop Bedell's catechism was printed in Dublin, 
in the same manner. " The ABC. The Catechism : 
That is to say, an instruction to be taught and learned of 
every Childe " was printed in 1636. Ten years later the 
" Catechism for young Children appointed by act of the 
Church of Scotland " was issued with the ABC, probably 
in Edinburgh. In England more care had to be taken, 
for as late as 1666, one Benjamin Keach was tried for 
writing "The Child's Instructor,or a New and Easy Primer", 
which contained a catechism with leanings towards anabap- 
tism ; but though the author was sentenced to the pillory, 
the book was constantly republished. A little later, in 
1670 George Foxe issued his "Primer and Catechism' 
"with several delightful Things" intended to make a Quaker 
of the student. 

One of the gravest difficulties to the early Separatists in 
both Old and New England, was the question of what The early 
catechism to teach their children. During the voyage of catechtsin g 
the Arbella the Puritans were catechised by their clergy- 

' J Englanders 

man on Sunday, while no sooner were they landed than the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay made a contract with sundry 
" intended ministers " for " catechising, as also in teaching, 
or causing to be taught the Companyes servants & their 
children, as also the salvages and their children ",' and in 
this same year (1629) they voted the sum of three shillings 
for " 2 dussen and ten catechismes ". z It cannot certainly 
be known to what particular catechism these allusions refer, 
but it was probably the one composed by " that famous 

1 " Records of the Massachusetts Bay," i., 376. 
* Ibid, i., 37 h. 



New Eng- 

divine ' William Perkins, preacher of St. Andrews Church 
in Cambridge, catechist for some time of Christ college, 
and one of the most distinguished Calvinists of the period. 
First printed in 1590,' this catechism ran through many 
editions in England, was republished with additions by 
John Robinson for the use of the pilgrims, and later was 
reprinted in New England. 

Very quickly after the Puritan settling in America a 
Neglect of the tendency developed towards the individualism implied by all 
Dissent anc | especially by Congregationalism. As a result 
of this diversity of belief, Lechford states that catechising 
was generally abandoned in many of the New England 
churches, and to meet this woeful condition the " General 
Corte" in 1641 "desired that the elders would make a 
Catechisme for the instruction of youth in the grounds of 
religion ",* as well as to consider " howe farr the magistrates 
are bound to interfere for the preservacon of that vniformity 
& peace of the churches ". 

The request was only too readily responded to and in 
the period of 1641-1684 the reverend "teachers' 1 John 
Davenport, John Cotton, John Eliot, Thomas Shepard, 
Richard Mather, John Fiske, John Norton, Seaborn Cotton, 
James Fitch, James Noyes, and Samuel Stone, each pre- 
pared one or more catechisms. In fact it is probable that 
every New England minister formulated his own faith in 
this manner, and at first thought it would seem to have 
been not a little trying to a congregation, on the the death 

tion of 

1 "The Foundations of Christian Religion, gathered into sixe Principles. Printed by 
Thomas Orwin for John Porter, 1590." 

3 "Records of Massachusetts Bay," I., 328. 



Child and Youth 


In Two Parts. 

Tie Hrjt, fir CHILDREN: 

Containing plain and pleafant Directions 

co read ENGLISH. 

With Prayers, Graces, and Icflrafticns 

fitted to the Capacity of Children. 

7be SecenJ, for YOUTH: 

Teaching to Write, Caft Account, and 
Read more pcrfe&y* 

With feveraf other Varieties, both 
plea fant and profitable. 

by T.H. M. A.Teacbercf 'a private School 

t Printed by / Xotert? t for the 
Company of Stationers, 1725. 


Introduction 1 1 

of a trusted shepherd who had properly inducted them in his 
own belief, to get accustomed to the doctrines of a new in- 
cumbent. This difficulty was for the most part avoided by 
the general knowledge of what each clergyman thought, so 
that only one in fairly close accord with the congregation was 
considered. When a mistake occurred, and the clergyman 
was found to run counter to his church, they hastened to get 
rid of him, which resulted in the innumerable church quarrels 
and the schism with which New England so abounded. 

Long after Cotton Mather asserted with evident pride 
that " few pastors of mankind ever took such pains at cate- Resulting 
chising as have been taken by our New England divines. ^ uarrels and 

... ., .... . schisms until 

Now, let any man living read the most judicious and {hg a j opt - ton 
elaborate catechisms published, a lesser and a larger by Mr. O fthe shorter 
Norton, a lesser and a larger by Mr. Richard Mather, Catechism 
several by Mr. Cotton, one by Mr. Davenport and sundry 
others, and say whether true divinity were ever better han- 
dled". 1 As a fact, however, this very multiplicity of catechisms 
tended only to increase the schism and the New English 
clergy spent their energies in preparing catechisms and quar- 
reling over them rather than in attempting the " instruction 
of youth " and the " vniformity and peace of the churches ". 
John Cotton though responsible himself for so much of the 
disputation, was forced to acknowledge that " the excellent 
and necessary use of catechising young men, and novices, 
... we willingly acknowledge : But little benefit have 
wee seene reaped from set forms of questions, and answers 
by one Church, and imposed by necessity on another ".* 

1 Mather's " Magnalia." 

2 Cotton's " A Modest and Cleere Answer to Mr. Ball's Discourse." London, 1642. 

I 2 


Not till the great Westminster Assembly formulated its 
longer and shorter catechisms, did the New England 
Churches find a common faith, and even then, as the work 
of Presbyterians and not Congregationalists, they were ac- 
cepted only by degrees, not because they were generally 
approved, but because they were the only escape from a 
tendency that threatened to break each congregation into 
fractions too small for existence as a church. 

The New 






SUCH was the condition of school books and cate- 
chisms, when the New England Primer was first 
published. Its authorship and date of issue have 
hitherto been mysteries that have resisted the research of 
all antiquarians, but it is at last possible to give the main 
facts concerning its origin. 

In the reign of King Charles of " merrie ' memory, 
one Benjamin Harris began printing in London " at the 
Stationers Arms in Sweethings Rents, near the Royal Ex- 
change ", otherwise described as " the Stationers Arms 
under the Piazza in Cornhill ". Here he issued, between 
the years 1676 and 1681 many tracts and broadsides of so 
little moment that his name finds no mention in any bio- 

graphical dictionary or history of printing. But aside from 
his calling, Harris deserves notice as a confirmed scrib- 
bler, resembling Mr. Wegg, in his tendency to drop into 
verse. To this was added an ardent love for the protestant 
religion, and an equal hatred of the Pope and all that he 

Introduction 1 3 

So long as the printer limited his activity to the writing 
and printing of ballads and tracts against the Pope and the Harris 
Jesuits under such titles as " The Grand Imposter " and rous , 

. . . trial 

"The Mystery of Iniquity", all went well with him, but in .x-*-^ 
1679, in connection with the " Rye House Plot ' : he issued 
"An Appeal from the Country to the City, for the Preserva- 
tion of His Majesties Person and the Protestant Religion ". 
The King's government did not take the same view of the 
question that Mr. Harris had, and as a result he was 
brought to trial for the " printing and vending " of this 
tract. The courtly tendency towards Catholicism gave 
little chance for the printer, and the chief justice, after 
remarking that if he had his wish, the printer should be 
whipped, ordered him to find security for his good behavior 
for three years. 1 

Unwarned by his experience, Harris in 1681 printed a 
" Protestant Petition ", and was once more haled before the Sentenced to 
court and this time the judge fined him five hundred pounds the P lllor y 
and ordered him put in the pillory. This meant that he was 
to be stoned by the crowd which always gathered, but from 
that fate he was saved, for " his Wife (like a Kind Rib) 
stood by him to defend her Husband against the Mobb ".* 
For this act, his enemies promptly turned their abuse 
upon the woman, and scurrilous ballads entitled " The 
Saint turned Courtezan " and the " Protestant Cuckold " 
endeavored to bring discredit upon her. The printer 
apparently did not recover from the mulct, for he seems to 
have ceased printing from that time. 

1 " A short account of the tryal of B. Harris," London : 1679. 

2 Dunton's "Letters from New England," 143. 


Upon the death of Charles II. and the succession of 

Removes to Catholic James " Old England " wrote John Dunton from 

Boston " is now so uneasie a Place for honest Men, that 

Ne-iv Eng- 

iand those that can will seek out for another Countrey : And this 

^^^-^N^J I suppose is the Case of Mr. Benjamin Harris and the two 

Mr. Hows, whom I hear are coming hither, and to whom 

I wish a good Voyage. Mr. Ben Harris, you know, has 

been a noted Publick Man in England, and I think the 

Book of English Liberties was done for him . . . No 

wonder then that in this Reign they meet with Enemies ".' 

Come to Boston Harris did and late in 1686 he set 

Sets upa book- U p a book and " Coffee, Tee and Chucaletto " shop,* by the 

shop and cof- T O wn-Pump near the Change ". A year later his imprint 


reads at the London Coffee House and he was employ- 
ing the printers of the town to print pamphlets and broad- 
sides for him. Here too he was quickly involved with the 
authorities, for in 1690 he issued, without permission, the 
first newspaper printed in America, under the title of 
" Public Occurrences " ; which was promptly suppressed by 
proclamation. In 1691 he formed a partnership with 
John Allen, and seems to have set up a press of his own. 
A year later he became " Printer to His Excellency the 
Governor and Council ", and removed his business to a 
" Shop, over against the Old-Meeting House ", making 
another remove in 1694 to a place which he called " The 
Sign of the Bible, over against the Blew-Anchor ", having 
ended his relations with Allen. 

In the meantime the English people had stood firm to 
their religion and had rid themselves of their king, so that 

1 Dunton's " Letters from New England," 144. * " Boston Town Records," 204. 

Introduction 1 5 

now Old England was once more safe to haters of popery. 

Better still, King William, whose advent Harris hailed in a Returns to 

Enpland and 

poem beginning : 

o & resumtspnnt- 

" God SAVE THE KING, that King that savd in S 

the land, 

When JAMES your Martyr's Son, your LAWS 
had shamm'd" 1 

had freed the press from the worst features of governmental 
restraint. Accordingly, Harris returned to London towards 
the end of 1695, and opened a new printing office at the 
" Maiden-Head-Court in Great East Cheap", and later Dun- 
ton writes that he " continu'd Ben Harris still ; and is now 
both Bookseller and Printer, in Grace-church Street, as we 
find by his London Post ; so that his conversation is general 
(but never Impertinent) and his Wit pliable to all Inven- 
tions. But yet his vanity (if he has any) gives no Alloy 
to his Wit, and is no more than might justly Spring from 
conscious Vertue; and I do him but Justice in this part of 
his Character, for in once travelling with him from Bury 
Fair, I found him to be the most Ingenious and Innocent 
Companion that I had ever met with ". When Harris 
died cannot be discovered, but it was after 1708. 

BEFORE his flight in 1686 to Boston (according to 
Dunton) " Mr. Harris I think also Printed the 
Protestant Tutor, a Book not at all relish'd by the 
Popish Party, because it is the design of that little Book Tutor 

1 " Monthly Observations," Boston: 1692. 

1 6 Introduction 

to bring up Children in an Aversion to Popery 'V 
No copy of this first English edition is known to exist, 
but from a later edition* its character proves it to be the 
legitimate predecessor of the New England Primer, for it 
contains the Alphabet, followed by the Syllabarium, the "Al- 
phabet of Lessons ", the Lord's Prayer, Creed, and Ten 
Commandments, the Poem of John Rogers with the picture 
of his burning, the " figures and numeral Letters ", and the 
" Names of the Books of the Bible ", all of which were 
embodied in the New England Primer. 

On his arrival in Boston it was obviously the interest of 
LsuestheNew Harris to get out a new edition of this little book, for its chance 
England Q f success was even greater among the popery-hating New 
Englanders, than that it had already met with in Old Eng- 
land. The poverty of the people made prudent an abridge- 
ment of the " Tutor " and thus it was reduced to smaller 
bulk ; to make it the more saleable the school book char- 
acter was increased, while to give it an even better chance 
for success by an appeal to local pride, it was rechristened 
and came forth under the now famous title. 

No copy of this first edition of the New England 

Date of pub- p r j mer i s known and thus the exact date of its appearance 

"*.' a cannot be given. Harris did not arrive in Boston till near 


of the second the end of 1686, and the only publication he issued in that 
impression year was an almanac for 1687, which Sewall bought on 
December 6, 1686. Between that time and Jan. 5, 1688, 
Harris made a trip to England, and on Nov. 22, 1688, he 
again sailed for London. 5 It was between 1687 and 1690 

1 Dunton's "Letters from New England," 144. " Edition of 1716. 

3 Sewall's " Diary," I., 200, 237. 

DECEMBER hath 3 1 D-ays 

Laft quart, i day 2* mln. paft 4 morn. 
New Moon 9 day 21 min. paft 9 raotn. 
Firffc quart. 17 day 13 mm. paft 1 Afrern. 
Full Moon 25 day 39 min palt 10 night. 
Laft quart- 31 day 59 min. paft it morn 

Of Stars vbicb baw appeared heretofore, and now 

Time out of mind there has feven Stars bin 
obferved in the pleiades, and at Prefent there { 
is to be feen but fix, a yery probable fign thac 
one of them is retired and become invifible* 
One of thefeof the Conftellatipn of the Lir- 
ttf w, which was formerly vifible, doth not 
now appear. Another alfo in the Confteilati* 
on of Andromeda hath alfo dtfappeared. 

Licensed According to Order. 


There is now in the Prefs, and will fuddenty 
be extant, a Second Imprefiion of The New-Eng- 
Und Pnmer enlarge^ to which is added, more 
Din ttiws for Spelling : the .Prayer of K Edward 
the 6rb. and Vtrfa made by- Mr. Rogers 'be M*r 
r^ hfe as a Legacy to his Children, 

Sold by Benj&nin /&rr/V, at the London Cofet- 
fioufcm Boflo* j 

K.jl > . + " n.i I., . i" 'n ^r.i f !M S 

From Ne--j;man s Ne<ws from the Stars. Boston: 1600 


Introduction 1 7 

therefore that the first edition of the Primer was issued. Its 
success seems to have been immediate, for in Henry New- 
man's almanac entitled "News from the Stars", "Printed 
by R. Peirce for Benjamin Harris at the London 
Coffee-House in Boston, 1691 " (and consequently printed 
late in 1690) the last leaf advertised a "second Impression 
of The New England Primer, Enlarged ". 

A very essential piece of evidence in regard to the date 
of the book is connected with the earliest (supposed) frag- The Bradford 
ment of the Primer known. This consists of four leaves, f ra s ment 
and was found bound up as waste in the binding of a copy 
of Daniel Leeds " Temple of Wisdom " as printed by 
William Bradford at Philadelphia in 1688. From this it 
has been argued that " these leaves probably came from 
a Philadelphia reprint of a Boston edition of the Primer 
which must have been published at least as early as 1687 ". 
The evidence of this does not seem adequate. There is no 
proof that the volume was bound in the year that it was 
printed, nor can it be decided for certain that the fragments 
are a reprint of the Primer, the chances being quite as favor- 
able of their being part of an edition of the Protestant 
Tutor. All that can be said of these leaves is that they are 
the earliest known fragments of a book compiled by Benja- 
min Harris, and that they were printed by William Brad- 
ford either in Philadelphia or New York between 1687 and 
1700. From other facts known of Bradford this was pre- 
sumably a stealing of Harris's book and is therefore an early 
American case of literary theft. 

The book proved so great a success in New England 
that when its compiler returned to Old England, he contin- 

1 8 Introduction 

ued to publish it. In a work 1 printed by him in 1701 is 
Harris issues advertised at the end, among other " Books Printed and 
/^NewEng- Sold by E Harris ^ ^ c Golden Boar's-Head in Grace- 

WTheNew church St.", " The New England Primer Enlarged ; For 

English Tu- the more easy attaining the true Reading of English. To 

tor in London w hich is added Milk for Babes" He seems to have also 

-' x T* > o published editions of it under a title which would make it 

more attractive to the English public, for in the reign of 

Queen Anne (1702-1714) he issued what is presumably the 

same text as his New England Primer, under the title of 

"The New English Tutor". 1 But the other title proved 

the more popular, and under it numerous editions were 

printed in England and Scotland, even into the nineteenth 


It was in New England, however, that its great success 
Success of the was achieved. Primer to printer and people there soon 
Pnmer m meant on ly the New England Primer, all other varieties 


land being specially designated to show that they were not of the 

popular kind. Copies of the little book were as much a 
matter of " stock " in the bookshops of the towns and gen- 
eral stores of the villages as the Bible itself. In the inven- 
tory of Michael Perry, a Boston bookseller, filed in 1700, 
is entered "28 Primmers" and "44 doz. Primmers ", J and 
standard advertisements in newspapers and books announced 
that such and such a printer has for sale " Bibles, Testa- 
ments, Psalters, Psalm-Books, Primers, Account Books and 
Books of Record ". Indeed it was so taken for granted that 

1 Davenport's "Saints Anchor hold." London: 1701. 

7 See Appendix I. 

3 Dunton's "Letters from New England," 316, 318. 

Introduction 1 9 

copies were in stock, that many printers and booksellers did 
not think the fact worth advertising. 

Occasionally printers tried to better the sale by re-nam- 
ing it, as when Thomas Green issued it in New London Changes of 
with the title of " A Primer for the Colony of Connecticut ' Ml " 
and Henry de Foreest printed it at New York as " The 
New York Primer ". When the United States became a 
fact, it was several times printed under the titles of " The 
American Primer", or "The Columbian Primer". But the 
variations were not popular, the ventures did not succeed 
the better, and eventually the " New England Primer " be- 
came the deservedly established title. 

For one hundred years this Primer was the school- 
book of the dissenters of America, and for another hundred, Magnitude of 
it was frequently reprinted. In the unfavorable locality (in sale 
a sectarian sense) of Philadelphia, the accounts of Benjamin 
Franklin and David Hall show that between 1749 and 
1766, or a period of seventeen years, that firm sold thirty- 
seven thousand one hundred copies. Livermore stated in 
1849 that within the last dozen years " 100,000 copies of 
modern editions . . . have been circulated ". An over con- 
servative claim for it is to estimate an annual average sale 
of twenty thousand copies during a period of one hundred 
and fifty years, or total sales of three million copies. 


ESPITE this enormous number, early editions of Rarity of the 

i Primer, and 

the JNew tLngland Jrnmer are among the rarest the reasons 
of school-books. Edward Coote, in his " Eng- 



lish Schoole-Master " (London 1597) recommended to 
purchasers of his book, that : 

" If, notwithstanding any former reasons, thou doubtist that thy 
little child will have spoyled this booke before it bee learned ; thou 
maist fitly diuide it at the end of the second booke, or thou mayest 
reserve faire the written copies, vntill he can read." 

When to the destruction of the child, is added the slight 
value set by adults on children's books of their own time, it 
is not strange that works intended for the instruction or 
amusement of the young should constitute one of the rarest 
of all classes of literature. 

This destruction and heedlessness has made a study of 

Difficulty of the New England Primer an almost hopeless undertaking. 

studying and Though eagerly searched for by many collectors in the last 
fifty years, no copy of a seventeenth century edition of the 
work has been discovered, and this search has brought to 
light less than forty editions and less than fifty copies of 
New England Primers printed in the eighteenth century. 
Although as already noted Franklin and Hall printed over 
thirty-seven thousand copies between 1749 and 1766 (and 
as Franklin printed an edition as early as 1735 and Hall as 
late as 1779 it is probable that they issued at least double 
that number), but a single copy with their imprints is 
known to exist. Thomas states that Fowle printed about 
1757 one edition of 10,000 copies, but not a single primer 
with his imprint is extant. This is typical of the majority 
of the issues. 

George Livermore, the first collector of the little book, 


//^Primer wno began about 1840, only succeeded in getting two 
eighteenth century editions : Providence, 1775, and Hart- 


2 I 

ford, 1777. George Brinley, enjoying equal advantage in 
priority and eagerness of search, after forty years of collect- 
ing, only obtained nine primers of that century, Boston, 
1737, Boston, 1768, Boston, 1770, Concord, 1776, Boston, 
1777, Boston, 1784, Newburyport [1795?], Philadelphia 
1797, and Medford, 1798. An early collection of Primers 
made by Ira Webster, who in 1 843 reprinted the earliest copy 
then known (Boston 1777), later came into the hands of 
Dr. Henry Barnard, whose notable work in the history and 
development of American education interested him in this 
book, and who after many years of faithful gathering, has 
brought together editions as follows : Boston, [1738 ?] 
(badly imperfect), Boston, 1770, Providence, 1775, Boston, 
1781, Portsmouth, [1795?], Newburyport, [1795 ?], and 
Philadelphia, 1797. A fourth collector, Mr. E. Dwight 
Church, has succeeded in obtaining copies of editions : 
Boston, 1738, and Boston, 1762, the first of which he 
purchased of Messrs. Dodd Mead & Co., who had cata- 
logued it at three hundred dollars, and the second was 
bought for him at the Brayton Ives sale for one hundred and 
five dollars. This latter, in condition, is the finest copy 
extant. Bishop John F. Hurst has gathered copies of the 
primer: Boston, 1771, [No place], 1782, Salem, 1784, 
Boston, 1791, New York, 1794, and Boston, [1795 ?]. 

The latter collections above noted are still in existence, 
but those of Mr. Livermore and Mr. Brinley were sold at Finest coliec- 
the respective auction sales of their libraries, and have gone 
to largely form the two finest collections of the Primer now 
existing. The first of these in condition and completeness 
is that owned by Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, which consists 




of the six choicest specimens formerly owned by Mr. Brin- 
ley, and were bought at the sale of his library for the sum 
of six hundred and twelve dollars for the lot. Scarcely 
less valuable is the series possessed by the Lenox Library. 
This contains the earliest known edition in existence, un- 
fortunately slightly imperfect, which was purchased at pri- 
vate sale for the library in 1876 by Dr. George H. Moore 
for the absurdly low price of five dollars. A copy of a 
London, 1767, edition was added through the liberality of 
Mr. Alexander Maitland who bought it for one hundred 
dollars and presented it to the library. From the Livermore 
sale copies of editions: Providence, 1775 and Hartford, 1777, 
were obtained at the price of ninety dollars each. More 
recently Boston editions of 1791 and 1795 were purchased. 
Among the less important collections in public libraries, 
Minor collec- is that of the American Antiquarian Society, which has 
copies of editions: Boston, 1795, Newburyport, [1795 ?], 
Newbury, [1795 ?],and Medford 1798. The Connecticut 
Historical Society has a Primer, London 1771 ; Brown 
University one, Boston, [1795 ?] and the Massachusetts 
Historical Society one, Paisley, 1781. An edition printed 
in Boston in 1770 is in the Woburn (Mass.) Public Li- 
brary, and one printed in the same place a year later is 
the property of the Sheldon Art Museum at Middlebury, 
Vt. The British Museum has a Newburyport, [1795?], 
edition, but far more interesting is its unique copy of the 
" New English Tutor " reprinted in this volume. The 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania possesses the four leaves 
of the Bradford fragment, supposed to be a portion of the 
earliest edition known. 


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Introduction 2 3 

To all these collectors and institutions the writer is un- 
der the greatest obligation for their uniform courtesy and Obligation of 
assistance. He must also add his especial indebtedness to tbe edltor 
Mr. Wilberforce Eames, Librarian of the Lenox Library, 
for constant aid in the preparation of this work and as well 
for his kindness in overlooking the proof sheets. 

ALTHOUGH each printer of the New England 
Primer changed title and text to suit his taste or Variations of 
business interests, certain unmistakable ear-marks, Pnmer 
or what the naturalist would term " limit of organic varia- *^ ^^ 
tion ", serve to mark beyond question every edition of the 
Primer, however titled or altered. The printers of other 
school-books often inserted fragments of the more famous 
Primer in their ventures, but this neither deceived the pub- 
lic then or the book lover now, the true Primer being too 
sharply differentiated from all others for there to be the 
possibility of confusion. 

Every New England Primer, like many others, began 
with the letters of the alphabet, followed by various repeti- The alphabet 
tions making clear the distinctions between vowels, conso- and s J llaba ~ 
nants, double letters, italic and capitals. After this came 
what was called " Easy Syllables for Children," or as it was 
frequently termed, the " syllabarium," beginning with such 
combinations as " ab, eb, ib, ob, ub," followed by words of 
one syllable which lengthened by degrees to imposing voca- 
bles of six syllables. It is to be noted however, that occa- 
sionally when the printer was cramped for space, he limited 
the ambition of the student by dropping out these polysyl- 



The omission 
of the 

Alphabet of 

labic words, and gave only the shorter ones. This whole 
elementary section of the primer had been used in Coote's 
"The English Schoolmaster " as early as 1596, and may 
have been framed by him, but as the first part is practically 
what went to make the Horn-Book of the period, its anti- 
quity may be far greater than Coote's book. 

One apparently trivial distinction in the text as given 
in the New England Primer, yet which had a deep motive, 
is the omission at the beginning of the alphabet of the ^ 
which otherwise was so almost invariably placed there, as to 
give to the first line of the alphabet the name of " Christ's 
Cross-Row " or as it was more commonly termed " the Cris 
Cross Row." In Morton's " New English Canaan " he 
speaks of " a silenced Minister " who came over to New 
England and brought " a great Bundell of Home books 
with him and careful hee was (good man) to blott out all the 
crosses of them for feare least the people of the land should 
become Idolaters." Of this Puritan dread of the cross, the 
New England Primer always took heed, and no edition is 
known, even in those prepared for Episcopalians, to contain 
the oldest religious emblem now worshipped. 

Usually following the syllabarium, was what was called 
" An Alphabet of Lessons for Youth," being a series of 
moral and instructive sentences taken from the Bible, so 
worded and arranged as to begin each paragraph with a 
successive capital letter of the alphabet, the sole exception 
being in the case of X, for that letter proved beyond the 
ability of the compiler to find a sentence beginning properly, 
and he dodged the issue in the following manner : 

" eXhort one another daily ". 

Introduction 2 5 

In every " New England Primer" the Lord's Prayer 
and Apostles' Creed were included, and while their position ^ Lord's 
was varied, they commonly followed the " Alphabet of ray * r a 


EXT in order of what went to make the Primer 

famous were the twenty-four little pictures, with The Rhymed 
alphabetical rhymes, commencing Alphabet 

" In Adams Fall 
We sinned All ". 

A description of the beginning of original sin which cer- 
tainly did its best to balance our first forebears' very ungen- 
erous version of the affair which to the Puritan was the 
greatest event in history. 

This method of teaching the alphabet by short poems 
was of much older date. As early as 1552 there was printed Earlier 
in England a little tract entitled " Alphabetum primum Be- Rb y med Al ~ 
cardi," which consisted of rhymes to each of the letters, and a j^, 
another work of this period of exactly the same character 
was entitled " Finch his Alphabet". A little later a broad- 
side was issued headed " All the Letters of the A.B.C. by 
every sondrye Letter wherof ther is a good Document set 
fourth and taught in Ryme. Translated out of Bas-Almaine 
into English, anno 1575". An even further development 
of this was contained in Wastell's " Microbiblion, or the 
Bibles Epitome" 1 (London 1629) containing the sum of 

1 An edition with a different title was printed as early as 1623. 



the whole, in verse so capitalized as to form successive 

Who was the author of the New England Primer 
alphabet verses is not known, no text of it before its 

It could not 


an ate of p r i nt j n p. m t hat work having been found. 

Writing & 

have been written long before the first appearance of that 
book, for the rhyme : 

" The Royal Oak 

It was the Tree 
That sav'd bis 

Roval Majesty." 

by its allusion to King Charles, clearly shows it to have 
been composed after 1660. All this points to the compiler 
of the Primer as its author, for in other poems he expresses 
the greatest admiration for the Merrie Monarch, as already 
noted, he was continually scribbling verse quite of the 
character of the rhymed alphabet, and this gives a strong 
suspicion that it is from the pen of Harris. 

It is a curious fact that of all these twenty-four stanzas 
only the first one, relating to Adam, was not at some time 
varied or changed, and these variations give a curious illus- 
tration of some very important alterations of public opinion. 
Thus in the earliest text extant, 1 at the letter J is given a 
picture of the crucifixion, with the stanza 

" Sweet Jesus he 
Dy'd on a Tree" 

And in an English school-book of other character than the 
Primer, this was unchanged. The Puritan, however, would 

1 " New English Tutor," infra. 

tion in text 

y IB 

kJ* tfi go 

y *Nf* -9 

S , o J. 


; o .c ta 


w >o^* 



ra ^ 



*^ ^ W O 4* 


to S 

w ^ 

O "Q 

P-< >3 


<J a 

^j w 


^i ^ 

< ^s 2 

a b 

w si 


!H -^ 

x a 


Introduction 2 7 

not tolerate even this use of the cross, and so very quickly 
the picture was changed to one of Job, and the rhyme to 

" 'Job feels the rod 
Yet blesses God." 

Perhaps the most curious change is that connected with 
the letter K. Allusion has been made to Harris's admira- From Kin S * 
tion for King Charles, and there is good evidence that for en ' 
this letter originally there was a picture of that monarch 
and the stanza read 

" King Charles the Good 
No Man of Blood." 1 

Presently however the King was dead, and in a little time 
another king in the form of William III. for whom Harris 
also felt a strong admiration, was reigning over England. 
Thereupon the portrait and stanza were presumably changed 
by the insertion of one singing his praises. When William 
died however Harris did not displace his portrait, but call- 
ing into play his poetic fancy, he affixed to the old cut, 

the lines 

"K. William*! Dead 

and left the throne 
To Ann our Queen 
of great Renown."* 

This necessity of changing with each new reign seems to have 
proved a nuisance, and so someone presently hit upon the 
device of being always in date, by making the rhyme read 

" Our King the good 
No man of blood."* 

1 See stanza as printed in " A Guide for the Child", infra. * "New English Tutor", infra. 
3 See "New England Primer", Boston : 1727, infra. 

2 8 Introduction 

For many years this form was satisfactory, but finally the 
Americans began to question if after all the King was good. 
To meet this doubt, printers easily changed the praise into 
admonition by printing 

" Kings should be good 
Not men of Blood" 1 

Finally washing their hands of monarchy, rhyme too was 
abandoned, and the stanza became 

" The British King 
Lost States thirteen"* 

varied occasionally by another form which announced that 

" ghteens and Kings 
Are gaudy things "* 

Akin to this in both democratic sentiment and verse 
The letter ^ were revised lines for Q, to the effect that 

" Kings and Queens 
Lie in the dust"* 

In the same manner, the rhyme already quoted, about 
From Royal the royal oak, became unfit poetry for young republicans, 
and in attempts to vary it wide divergence crept in, resulting 
in the following forms : 

u The Royal Oak, " If you seek in the forest 

our King did save The Oak you will see 

From fatal Stroke Among all the rest 

of Rebel Slave."* is the stateliest tree" 6 

1 See " New England Primer." Boston : 1791. 

2 Ibid. Philadelphia : 1797. 

3 Ibid. Brattleboro: 1825. B " A Guide for the Child", infra. 

4 Ibid. New York : 1819. 6 " New England Primer." Albany: 1818. 

Introduction 2 9 

" Of sturdy Oak " The Charter Oak 
That Stately tree it was the tree 

The ships are made That saved to us 

That sail the sea" 1 our Liberty"* 

" The Owl at night " The Oak for shade 

Hoots out of sight"* & strength was made"* 

Another injection of patriotism was made in the letter 
W. Originally this was rhe Primer 


" Inhales in the sea Washington 

Gods voice obey" ""|T-NO 

In some editions of the Primers printed after the American 
revolution this somewhat difficult rhyme was omitted, and 
in its place was one of the following 

" Great Washington brave u By Washington 

His country did save."* Great deeds were done"* 

All the foregoing were haphazard changes by various 
printers, but a more sweeping alteration was made between The Rhymed 
1740 and 1760. As originally written 6 many of the P a et 

K A A 'A A\ I'* Ewangehxtd 

verses had a decidedly mundane quality, and so some 
New England writer or printer undertook within that 
period, to evangelize 7 those lines which had an earthly 
tendency. What was accomplished, is shown in parallel 
column : 

" The Cat doth play, " Christ crucify' d 

And after slay" For sinners dy'd" 

1 "New England Primer." Walpole : 1806. * Ibid. Hartford: 18 ? 

3 Ibid. New York : 1819. * Ibid. Brattleboro : 1825. 

5 Ibid. New York: 1794. 6 Ibid. Boston : 1727. 

7 Ibid. Boston: 1762. 


The Rhymed 



44 The Dog will bite, 
A Thief at Night." 

44 An Eagle's flight, 
Is out of Sight" 

44 An idle Fool, 
Is whipt at School" 

44 Our King the good 
No man of blood " 

" The Lion bold, 

The Lamb doth hold: 

44 The moon gives Light, 
In time of night " 

44 Nightingales sing, 
In time of Spring" 

44 The Royal Oak, 

it was the Tree, 
That sav'd his 
Royal Majesty" 

44 Rachel doth mourn 
For her first born" 

44 Samuel anoints 

IVhom God appoints" 

" Time cuts down all, 
Both great and small" 

44 The Deluge drown* d 
The Earth around" 

44 Elijah hid 
By ravens fed " 

44 The judgement made 
Felix afraid." 

44 Proud Korah' ' s troop 
swallowed up" 


Lot fled to Zoar, 
Saw fiery Shower, 
On Sodom pour" 

44 Moses was he 
Who Israel's Host 
Led thro' the Sea." 

44 Noah did view 
The old world s? new" 

44 Young Obadias, 
David, Josias, 
All were Pious" 

44 Young Pious Ruth 
Left all for Truth." 

44 Young Sam 1 1 dear 
The Lord did fear." 

44 Young Timothy 
Learnt Sin to fly" 


V s0 -O 

2 ^ 

Q C3 


* s 

It g 






K o 

> -a 






'73 JC 

K 2 







tj .2 







Introduction 3 1 

" Uriah's beauteous Wife, " Vashti for Pride 
Made David seek bis life." Was set aside" 

Much later, in the present century when children's books 
began to cater to what a child would like, a reactionary The Rhymed 
spirit reversed this evangelization and stanzas of worldly Alphabet 

. 11-1-1 r i modernized 

tendency were actually inserted in place or them in some ^_. 

* -^ T " > ^- * 

editions. These substitution verses were : 

K. "'7w Youth's delight 
To fly their kite" 

H. " Wrote by the hand 

Great works do stand" 

R. " The Rose in bloom 

Sheds sweet perfume" 

U. " Urns hold, we see 
Coffee and Tea." 1 

The Puritan however did not approve these changes, and 
they were rarely used. Nor were the evangelized rhymes 
ever adopted in Great Britain. 

Other and less noticeable changes were made, of which 
the following are the most important that have been found : Minor changes 

in the Rhymed 

" The Eagle's flight " The Egytian host Alphabet 

Is out of sight." was in the red sea lost"* 

" Thy life to mend " Heaven to find 

This Book attend."* The Bible mind."* 

1 "New England Primer." New York : 1819. a Ibid. Wilmington : 1812 

3 "New English Tutor." 4U< New England Primer," 1762. 


u tjhteen Esther came 

in royal State, 
To save the Jews 

from dismal Fate" 1 

" Youth's forward slips, 
Death soonest nips" 1 

" While youth do chear 
Death may be near." 4 

" )ueen Esther sues 
And saves the Jews"* 

" Youth onward slips 
Death soonest nips" 

11 No Youth we see 
From death is free"* 

" Xerxes the great did dye " Xerxes did die, 
And so must you and 7." 6 And so must I." 7 

There were some few other variations of wording, but of 
such slight difference as not to need notice. 

John Rogers* 
unto his 


VEN more famous than the rhymed alphabet, is the 
poem of John Rogers, with the picture of the 
martyr burning at the stake, and " his Wife, with 
Nine small Children, and one at her Breast " looking on. 
Much sadness this poem and print must have cost the 
Puritan mind, and even now, it is capable of producing a 
sigh, no longer because one feels so keenly for the man, 
who regardless of wife and children, insisted on being burnt, 
and really forced the court against its will to make a martyr 
of him, but because a study of the facts shows that the use 

1 "New English Tutor." 
3 "New English Tutor." 

6 "New England Primer.' 
6 "New English Tutor." 

1 "New England Primer", 1762. 
4 "New England Primer", 1761. 
Brattleboro : 1825. 
7 "New England Primer", 1762. 

Introduction 3 3 

of this poem and story, was nothing but a piece of sectarian 
garbling and falsehood, and that all the pity spent upon it 
by millions of readers was no more deserved than that 
lavished upon the unfortunate heroes and heroines of 

The history of the poem so far as can be learned is as 
follows. In the sixteenth century there lived a man of 
whom Foxe, in his "Book of Martyrs," wrote: 

" Robert Smith gave himself to service in the house of sir Thomas 

Smith, knight, being then provost of Eaton : from thence he was Foxe' 's account 

preferred to Windsor, having there in the college a clerkship of ten f 

pounds a year. Of stature he was tall and slender, active about mlt 

many things, but chiefly delighting in the art of painting, which 

many times rather for his mind's sake, than for any gain, he did 

practice and exercise. In religion he was fervent, after he had 

once tasted the truth ; wherein he was much confirmed by the 

preaching of Mr. Turner, of Windsor, and others. Whereupon 

at the coming of Queen Mary he was deprived of his clerkship by 

her visitors ; and not long after he was apprehended, and brought 

to examination before Bonner." 

At this point Foxe inserts an account of the trial where 
Smith : 

" vailantly stood in defence of his master's cause : and as thou seest 
him here boldly stand in examination before the bishop and doctors ; Trial and 
so was he no less comfortable also in the prison among his com- Prison Life 
panions : which also is to be observed no less in his other fellow- 
prisoners, who being together in the outward room in Newgate, 
had godly conference with themselves, with daily praying and public 
reading, which they to their great comfort used in that room together; 



Burning at 
the Stake 

Robert Smith 
as a ^writer 

Poetical Letter 
to a Friend 

amongst whom Smith was the chief; whose industry was always 
solicitous, not only for them of his own company, but also his 
diligence was careful for other prisoners, whom he ceased not to 
dissuade from their old accustomed iniquity ; and many he converted 
to his religion. 

" The said Robert Smith, the valiant and constant martyr of 
Christ, being thus replenished as ye have heard, with the fortitude 
of God's Spirit, was condemned at London by Bonner their bishop, 
on the 1 2th of July ; and suffered at Uxbridge the 8th day of 
August ; who as he had been before a comfortable instrument of 
Good to all them that were in prison with him : so now also 
being at the stake, he did no less comfort the people, there stand- 
ing about him, willing them to think well of his cause, and not to 
doubt but that his body dying in the quarrel, should rise again to 
life. And, said he, I doubt not but God will show you some 
token thereof. At length he being well nigh half burnt, and all black 
with fire, clustered together as in a lump like a black coal, all men 
thinking him dead, suddenly rose upright before the people, lifting 
up the stumps of his arms, and clapping the same together, declaring 
a rejoicing heart unto them ; and so bending down again, and hang- 
ing over the fire, slept in the Lord, and ended this mortal life." 

To a skill in painting, Mr. Smith added one in letters, 
and Foxe states that " while in prison he wrote several 
letters to his friends, some in verse, and others in prose ". 
These poetical letters were nearly all in the same metre, 
part of one to a friend reading : 

"And now became I know the goal 

That thou dost most desire 
I send thee here a paper full, 
As fined in the fire 

Introduction 3 5 

In hope thou wilt accept it well 

Although it be but small 
Because I have no other good 

To make amends withal" 1 

To his brother he also wrote, bespeaking his care for his 
wife and 

"Also my daughter dear 

Whom I bequeath to thee Poetical Letter 

To be brought up in fear to his Brother 

And learn the ABC --nr^J 

That she may grow in grace 
And ruled by the rod 
To learn and lead her life 
Within the fear of God." 

Far surpassing these poems in popularity, however, was 
the " Exhortation vnto his children " which he penned at Writing and 
this same time. Written in the year in which he was burned P ubl " btn gf 

/ \ 11 1 f bis Exhorta- 

(i CCO, it seems to have been printed first in icco when t . ,. 

\ JJJ/ 3 jjy tion unto his 

the Stationers Company directed that " Owyn Rogers hath children 
lycense to prynte the Instruction for Chyldren ".* It was ac- 
cordingly issued in that year, in a little tract of Puritan 
writings, on the title of which it was termed " An exhorta- 
cion of Mathewe Rogers, vnto his children," in the body of 
the work it was retitled " The instruction of a Father to his 
Children, which he wrote a few days before his burnynge ", 
and at the end it was signed "Finis quod Mathewe Rogers ". J 
It apparently proved a work of some popularity for in 1577 

1 Foxe's "Book of Martyrs." 

2 Arber's "Stationers' Register", i., 96. 

3 See Appendix II. 

3 6 Introduction 

the Stationers Company "Licensed vnto" John Arnold the 
issuing of another edition of the tract. 

Why the name of Mathewe Rogers was substituted for 
Substitution of th a t of the true writer can not be discovered, unless, Rogers 
Rogers' Name ^^g ^g ear li est) an d therefore the best known of the " re- 
^" J formed " Martyrs, the printer reasoned that his name would 
cause a greater sale. The change of his true cognomen John 
to Mathew, is more easily explained, for under the pen name 
of Thomas Mathew, Rogers had helped Tyndale in translat- 
ing the scriptures, and thus he was often called Mathew 

But this foisting of the poem of Smith on to Rogers by 
NewEngland no mea ns ended the garbling. In the New England Primer, 
Primer ac- ^ sno rt sketch of Rogers was inserted, as follows : 

count of John 

Rogers " Mr. John Rogers Minister of the Gospel in London, was the 

-^"~"|T\3 First Martyr in Queen Mary's Reign, and was burnt in Smithfield, 
February the 14-th, 1554. His Wife with nine small Children, 
and one at her Breast, follow'd him to the Stake, with which sor- 
rowful Sight, he was not in the least daunted, but with wonderful 
Patience, Dyed couragiously for the Gospel of Jesus Christ." 

This is more remarkable for misstatement than for fact. 
True account R O g ers was a priest sworn to celibacy, who becoming con- 
verted, broke his vow and took unto himself a wife. When, 


on the accession of Mary, he refused to put the woman 
away, he was condemned to death, and was burned at the 
stake on February 4th, 1555, ("old style" February the 
14, 1554) being, as Foxe said "the first martyr of all the 
blessed company that suffered in Queen Mary's time, that 
gave the first adventure upon the fire 'V Furthermore, his 

1 Foxe's "Book of Martyrs." 

Introduction 3 7 

wife and children did not see him burned, for Foxe merely 
stated that : " His wife and children, being eleven in num- 
ber, ten able to go, and one sucking at her breast, met him 
by the way as he went towards Smithfield : this sorrowful 
sight of his own flesh and blood could nothing move him, 
but he constantly and cheerfully took his death with wonder- 
ful patience, in the defence of the gospel of Christ ". 

Worth noting in this connection is one question over 
which there has been much controversy, being the exact num- The number 
ber of children thus left fatherless. The Primer, as will be of John 
seen, gave him " nine small children and one at the breast" ogers 

... , 

but printers read this differently, sometimes giving nine, and 
sometimes ten, in the picture. At his trial, Rogers said dis- 
tinctly that he had ten children, while Foxe 1 speaks of his 
" children, being eleven in number, ten able to go, and one 
sucking". The explanation of this discrepancy is probably 
due to the fact that Rogers was held in prison for over a year, 
and debarred during that period from all news of his wife, in 
which time it is obvious the eleventh child was born, since at 
the time of his burning it was still unweaned. 

OF greater importance than the Roger verses but of 
far less popularity was the Catechism, which us- The Cate- 
ually followed close upon the poem. In all eight- cbismsaftbt 
eenth century Primers examined this consisted of either the 

J Primer 

Westminster Assembly's "Shorter Catechism"or John Cot- 
ton's " Spiritual Milk for Babes " and in a number of edi- 

1 Foxe's "Book of Martyrs." 

3 8 Introduction 

tions both were included. Several nineteenth century edi- 
tions of the New England Primer contained besides the 
Assembly's Catechism, the Episcopal as well, but no early 
edition found contains what was so alien to all the rest of 
the work. 

The Shorter Catechism was framed by the great West- 
Historyofthe minster Assembly, which was called together by the Round- 
ate- j-f eac j Parliament and was composed of one hundred and 


twenty-one clergymen or presbyters, thirty or the laity, 
chiefly of the nobility, and five special commissioners from 
Scotland, and Baxter claimed " that the Christian world, since 
the days of the Apostles, never had a Synod of more excel- 
lent divines". This assembly met first on July 10, 1643, 
and dissolved itself on March 3, 1649, having held in the 
six years no less than eleven hundred and sixty-three ses- 

Compared to Herbert's catechism entitled " The Careful 
Length and Father and Pious Child" (London, 1648) which contained 
consequent over twelve hundred questions and answers, the as- 
sembly's catechism might well be termed " shorter ". As a 
fact however this title was given merely to distinguish it from 
the larger catechism put forth by this Assembly, and its one 
hundred and seven questions, the answers to which ranged 
in length from eight to one hundred words, made it a night- 
mare to children. Rev. Heman Humphreys, though a con- 
gregational clergyman and the president of Amherst college, 
acknowledged that his recollection " accords with the experi- 
ence of thousands, who like myself, once loathed the As- 
sembly's Catechism ",' and when it is considered that child- 

1 "New England Primer", Worcester: [1850?] 

Introduction 3 9 

ren of four and five years of age were expected to repeat, 
with absolute verbal correctness, the terrible answers defin- 
ing "justification", "sanctification", and "glorification", or 
stand disgraced in the eyes of the whole congregation, the 
word seems by no means too strong. Another clergyman 
acknowledged that "when the Venerable Assembly composed 
this form of Instruction, it seems that few of themselves 
tho't it design'd or fitted for Babes, some answers being so 
long and so full of great sense that tho' they might recite the 
Words, that can be of little Benefit, till they also apprehend 
the meaning ".' 

None the less the children were drilled in this catechism 
unsparingly. In church and at school it was almost a daily A daily task 
task. As if this were not sufficient Cotton Mather even ad- f r CMdren 
vised mothers to catechise their children "every day", *-*""**'^ 
adding " you may be continually dropping something of the 
Catechism upon them : Some Honey out of the Rock /" and 
he told parents that : 

" The Souls of your Children made a Cry in your Ears, O Par- 
ents; a cry enough to break an Heart of Adamant. They are Born Mr. Cotton 
Children of Wrath; and when they grow up, you have no way to Mather: his 
Save them from the dreadful Wrath of God, if you do not Catechise 
them in the Way of Salvation. They cry to you ; O our dear Par- 
ents; Acquaint us with the Great God, and His Glorious Christ, that 
so Good may co?ne unto us ! Let us not go from your Tender Knees, 
down to the Place of Dragons. Oh ! Not Parents, but Ostriches : 
Not Parents, but Prodigies ! What, but more cruel than the Sea- 
Monsters are the Parents, who will not be moved by such Thoughts 
as these, to Draw out the Breasts of the Catechism, unto their Young 

1 Noble's "Beginners' Catechism." London: 1707. 


Ones ! One would think, Parents, Your own Bowels, if you have 
not Monstrously lost them, would Suggest enough to persuade you 
unto the Pleasant Labours of the Catechism" 

Yet even Mather acknowledged that the Shorter Catechism 
had difficulties for very young children, by preparing a 
briefer and simpler one, that instead of taxing children of 
the " Youngest and Lowest Capacities," with the catechism 
of the Assembly, " This little Watering Pot may be quickly 
so used upon the little Olive Plants about our tables, that, 
not a drop of the heavenly dew contained in it shall escape 
them 'V 

Nor was the catechism used only for the catechising of 
the younger generation, for it was frequently made the sub- 
ject of sermons to the elder portions of the congregation, 
Mather relating that Rev. John Fiske "chose the Assem- 
bly's Catechism for his public expositions, wherewith he twice 
went over it, in his discourses before his afternoon sermons." 
The largest book printed in New England before the nine- 
teenth century, was Samuel Willard's " Complete Body of 
Divinity in Two Hundred and Fifty Expository Lectures 
on the Assembly's Shorter Catechism " a mammoth folio 
of over nine hundred pages, of such popularity that before 
publication more than five hundred subscribers were ob- 
tained, many of whom bespoke more than one copy, and some 
as many as sixteen. 1 

It has been questioned whether the Assembly's Catechism 
appeared in the very earliest editions of the New England 

of the Primer *\ J 

and the Primer, but from the fact that Harris printed a separate 

on the Cate- 


See Appendix III. 
See Appendix IV. 


edition of the catechism in the same year that the second 
impression of the Primer was issued, and from the fact that 
it formed part of the Bradford edition, which is thought to 
be the earliest Primer fragment known, the evidence seems 
far more in favor of its inclusion than against it. 

EQUALLY popular at first in America was John 
Cotton's " Spiritual Milk for American Babes," cotton's 
Mather being authority for the statement that in Spiritual Milk 
1697 "the children of New England are to this day most for Babes 
usually fed with this excellent catechism" 1 and he called it 
" peculiarly, The Catechism of New England." 
Of the author Mather wrote : 

" Were I master of the pen, wherewith Palladius embalmed his 
Cbrysostom, the Greek patriark, or Posidonius eternized his Austin, . 

the Latin oracle, among the ancients; or, were I owner of the quill O f Mr. Cotton 
wherewith among the moderns, Beza celebrated his immortal Catvin, 
or Fabius immortalized his venerable Beza ; the merits of John 
Cotton would oblige me to employ it, in the preserving his famous 


It is sufficient to say that he was born in 1585, went through 
Cambridge University and became successively fellow of 
Trinity College, Dean of Emmanuel College, and minister at 
Boston in Lincolnshire. Becoming while there a non-con- 
formist, he was " silenced " for a while, but eventually was 
allowed once more to preach, and in his twenty years pas- 

1 Mather's " Magnalia." 

4 2 Introduction 

torate at Boston " he thrice went over the body of divinity 
in a catechistical way, and besides his 'Lord's day' sermons" 
gave " his ordinary lecture every week, on the week days, 
namely on Wednesdays and 'Thursdays, early in the morning, 
and on Saturdays, at three in the afternoon ", with such re- 
sults to Boston that " religion was embraced, and practiced 
among the body of the people; yea the mayor, with most 
part of the magistrates, were now called Puritans, and the 
S at anical party was become insignificant". 

Finally the High Commission Court, popularly known 

Flies to Amer- as tne Star Chamber began proceedings against him, and 

changing name and garb, Cotton took ship for New England 

comes a , r & . 

Leader with two other clergymen, the three lightening the tedium 

of the passage by daily sermons " all the while they were 
aboard, yea they had three sermons, or expositions, for the 
most part every day : of Mr. Cotton in the morning, Mr. 
Hooker in the afternoon, Mr. Stone after supper in the even- 
ing ". Upon arriving at Boston he was promptly made 
" teacher " of the first church there, and very quickly came 
to wield a power in that theocratic settlement akin to that 
now exercised by a political boss. He was invited to re- 
turn to England when the Puritans gained the upper hand, 
to take part in the "Westminister Assembly" but declined. 
Nothing perhaps better typifies the man than when on "be- 
ing asked why in his latter days he indulged in nocturnal 
studies more than formerly, he pleasantly replied, Because I 
love to sweeten my mouth with a piece of Calvin before I go 
to sleep 'V 

Cotton presumably prepared the Milk for Babes in 1641, 

1 Mather's "Magnalia." 

Introduction 4 3 

at the time the "General Corte" asked the elders to prepare a 
catechism, as already recorded, and probably it was printed at PreparesMllk 
Cambridge by Daye, between 1641 and 1645. No copy of for Babes 
this edition is known however, and the first edition of *"*"' ^ 
which a copy is now extant is one printed in London in 
1646. It was again printed there in 1648, and in 1668, and 
in 1656 an edition was issued at Cambridge in New Eng- 
land. After 1690 its inclusion in many editions of the New 
England Primer somewhat checked the printing of separate 
editions but an edition in the Indian tongue was printed at 
Boston in 1691, and this was reprinted in 1720. In 1702 
Mather abridged and combined it with the Assembly's 
catechism and one of his own and issued it under the title 
of " Maschil, or The Faithful Instructor", 1 and other edi- 
tions of this form of the work were issued with the title of 
"The Man of God Furnished" 1 and "The Way of Truth 
laid out 'V In these, Mather asserted that Milk for Babes 
"will be valued and studied and improved until New Eng- 
land cease to be New England." 

While by no means as popular as Mr. Cotton's meta- 
phorical title would lead one to expect, it must be confessed Milk for 
that it is a decided improvement on the Shorter Catechism, Babes com ~ 
if not in soundness of doctrine, at least in length. In place ' 
of one hundred and seven questions, there were but sixty- Catechism 

1 " Maschil, or The Faithful Instructor. Offering Memorials of Christianity in Twenty- 
Six Exercises Upon the New English Catechism." Boston: 1702. 

2 "The Man of God Furnished. The Way of Truth, Laid out, with a Threefold 
Catechism." Boston: 1708. 

3 "The Way of Truth, laid out. A Catechism which, as with Supplies from the 
Tower of David, Arms Christians of all Ages to Refute the Errors which most commonly as- 
sault the Cause of Christianity." Boston: 1721. 

44 Introduction 

four and instead of replies ranging in length from eight 
to one hundred words, one answer was a single word, and 
the longest only contained eighty-four. 

f ~-^HE last piece of any importance which can be con- 
Dialogue be- sidered an integrant of the New England 

tween Christ, JL Primer, is what was called "A Dialogue between 

Christ, Youth and the Devil ", a poem relating to a tempted 

youth, who despite the warning of his Redeemer succumbs 
to the wiles of the horny footed tempter, and makes an 
effective exit at the end of the dialogue without the assist- 
ance of any stage directions, but with, it is presumable, the 
glare of subterranean regions, in place of the more profes- 
sional calcium light. 

This dialogue form was a favorite medium of the seven- 

Popularity of teenth century. In 1671 Thomas Sherman issued a tract 

Dialogue called " Youth's Tragedy, drawn up by way of Dialogue be- 

form tween Youth, the Devil, Wisdom, Time, Death, the Soul, 

and the Nuncius ", which was many times reprinted. So 

too, an anonymous poem entitled "An Excellent Example 

to all young Men, being a Dialogue betwixt Youth and Con- 

science and Satan" was issued in London in 1684. Still a 

third, called " The Youth's Looking Glass, being a divine 

Dialogue between a young Man, Satan, and our Saviour 

Jesus Christ ", was printed without a date. 

None of these were the same as the Dialogue used in 

Authorship of ...... r . 

Dialogue tne P nm er, and as no printing of it can be found pre-datmg 
its appearance in that publication, it seems probable that it 

Introduction 45 

was composed by the man whom Dunton described as " the 
neat and poetical Ben Harris ". It is proper to note that un- 
like the portions already described it was not always included 
in the New England Primer, but as it is contained in the 
Bradford fragment, and in Harris' " New English Tutor ", 
as well as in nine editions of the Primer printed in the 
eighteenth century, it has seemed best to treat it as one of 
of the true pieces that went to mark the little book. 

V9@9^ $$ v^@ 

SUCH were the main contents of the Primer, but many 
smaller pieces, in which far greater variation was Minor Varia- 
shown, were used by the printers to fill in between 
the more important portions, and to pad out at the end so 
as to complete the last signature. Few of these minor 
pieces can be positively identified, but as they go to make 
a history of the book, and as their chronology is of some 
value in settling the approximate decade of imperfect copies 
of the Primer, they deserve some attention. 1 

In the second edition of the Primer, as the advertisement 
states, the Prayer of Edward VI, taken from Foxe's "Book Prayer of 
of Martyrs" was given, and this prayer appears in the "New Ed ard VIth 
English Tutor ", but no Primer extant contains it. 

The New English Tutor, The Protestant Tutors of 
1715, and 1716, and the New England Primer of 1727 Text of Ear- 
contain the ten commandments, the " Names and Orders of hest Edltlons 
the Books of the Old and New Testament" and "Numeral 
Letters and Figures, which may serve for the ready finding 

1 See Appendices VI. and VII. 

46 Introduction 

of any Chapter and Verse in the Bible ". None of these 
were included in the later eighteenth century editions. 

In the edition of 1737 a longish "Verses for Children" 
Textof edition beginning " Though I am but a little one " appeared for 
the first time, and was included in many subsequent editions. 
This edition also gave a part of the "Duty of Children to- 
wards their Parents" which had been given in the " New 
English Tutor ". The only other edition with this was one 
printed in London in 1781. Most remarkable of all in this 
edition was its printing of the lines : 

11 Now I lay me down to sleep 
I pray the Lord my soul to keep 
If I should die before I wake 
I pray the Lord my soul to take" 

The author of these famous lines is unknown, and this is 
their first appearance in print, so far as can be discovered. 
They were included in almost every subsequent edition of 
the Primer. 

With the evangelization of the Primer between 1740 and 
Text of the 1760, besides the change in the rhymed alphabet other ma- 
E<vangehzed ter j a j alterations were introduced. In the earliest edition 
extant so revised the chief variations are the introduction of 
Watts' Divine Song for Children, his Cradle Hymn, and his 
Morning and Evening Prayers, Rev. Nathaniel Clap's "Ad- 
vice to his Children," "Agurs Prayer," (which had appeared 
in the " New English Tutor ") and " Some Proper Names 
of Men and Women." All these additions proved fairly pop- 
ular, though the parts by Watts were the most so, and they 
formed the text of most editions of the Primer issued between 











Introduction 4.7 

1762 and 1790. A minor addition was the insertion of a 
short set of questions, beginning " Who was the first Man", 
and all to be answered from the Bible. This was length- 
ened or shortened at the will of each printer, and in the Sa- 
lem edition of 1784 the printer so far departed from sacred 
text, as to ask " Who saved America " and " Who betrayed 
America," the answers being " George Washington " and 
" Benedict Arnold." 

About 1790 a very marked change was made by printers 
taking some mundane rhymes from an English publication Text of the 

entitled the "Royal Primer", describing various animals, with p P ularized 

c . Primert 

pictures or them. .From this source were also taken a " De- 
scription of a Good Boy," a " Description of a Bad Boy," 
and poems on " The Good Girl " and " The Naughty Girl." 
Their insertion marked the beginning of the end, for no 
longer salvation was promised to the good, and unending 
fire to the bad, but " pert Miss Prat-a-pace " was to have 
none of the " Oranges, Apples, Cakes, or Nuts " promised 
to " pretty Miss Prudence," and the naughty urchin was only 
threatened with beggary while the good boy was promised 
" credit and reputation." Worst of all was the insertion of 
a short poem which should have made the true Puritan turn 
in his grave, for instead of teaching that letters were to 
be learned, that the Bible might be read, and that the figures 
were to be acquired for the purpose of finding chapter and 
verse in that work, it said : 

" He who ne'er learns bis A. B. C. 
Forever will a blockhead be. 
But he who learns his letters fair 
Shall have a coach to take the air" 


The change, nevertheless proved popular, alas, and quite a 
number of editions between 1790 and 1800 contain more or 
less of these worldly additions. 

Of these successive variations in the American primer, 
Unvarying- British editions took no heed, and they constitute a class by 

ness oj ng is (- nemse } veSi Although Harris' issue of the Primer in Old 


England contained Cotton's " Milk for Babes," later Eng- 
lish editions did not include it. But aside from the standard 
contents of the Primer, there were added " The History of 
the Creation," a poetical " Advice to Children," a " Collec- 
tion of the best English Proverbs," and a number of shorter 


The English 


'O account of the Primer would be complete without 
some notice of the illustrations, which alone of all 
its contents bid for popular favor from the children. 
In the Protestant Tutor as printed by Harris in 1716, 
is a frontispiece type-metal cut of George I. and from the 
fact that the New English Tutor and the 1727 edition of the 
Primer both lack the preliminary leaf of the first signature 
it is a safe assumption that these two books each began with 
a portrait of the Royal personage reigning at the time of 
their issue. The Primer of 1737 gives a very fairly executed 
portrait of George II. In 1762, though news of the death 
of this monarch had reached Boston, yet in an edition of the 
book printed there in that year, there either was too little 
time, or the printer was too economical, to prepare a new 
cut, so an additional stroke of the burin changed a II., into a 

Introduction 49 

III., and thus a portrait of George III. was improvised, 
which in its striking likeness to his father clearly shows the 
wonderful influence of heredity. 

The Primer of 1770 was more historically correct, giving 
a genuine though very crude portrait of George III. Again His American 
however, the printer was called upon, by the American Revo- Successors 
lution, to change his frontispiece, and in 1776 the portrait * -x> " s 
of the Royal George was merely relabelled, and came forth 
as the republican "John Hancock," the likeness between 
these two, being it is needless to say, very extraordinary con- 
sidering that they were representatives of such opposite 
parties. In the Boston edition of 1777 a correct portrait of 
Hancock was achieved, and in an edition printed in Hart- 
ford in the same year a portrait of Samuel Adams, another 
hero of the hour, was given. At the end of the revolution, 
the standard portrait became that of Washington, and the 
only exception to the use of his features, when any portrait 
was given in subsequent editions, is one of Isaac Watts 
printed in a Worcester edition issued about 1850. 

The change in the rhymed alphabet cuts have already 
been described. One important fact however, is the use of The Rhymed 
some of the little pictures in a work written by Harris en- Al P ha ^ tCuts 
titled " The Holy Bible In Verse." Harris advertised this 
book as early as 1701, and in an edition printed in 1717 all 
of the cuts are clearly taken from his edition of the New Eng- 
land Primer. 1 

The print of John Rogers at the stake has also been 
mentioned. There is a picture of the scene in Foxe's " Book The Prints of 
of Martyrs," but this departs from the standard of the Pri- 

1 See Appendix V. 

5 o Introduction 

mer cuts, by not having wife and children present. The 
earliest cut found to include them is contained in the " New 
English Tutor," and the identical block used in that work 
is also used in Harris' edition of the " Protestant Tutor" of 
1716. As fair samples of the style of prints, two eighteenth 
century cuts are given in the present work, taken from the 
editions of 1762 and 1770 respectively. Probably the most 
curious of all is that contained in the Albany edition of 1 8 1 8, 
in which the guards are costumed in the local militia uniform 
of the day, with great plumes in their shakos, but scarcely 
less odd is that in the Lansingburg, 1810 edition, in which 
the executioner is given a continental cocked hat. 

In the " New English Tutor " a print is given of " The 
The Pope, or p O pe or Man of Sin " which was originally beyond question 
a cut used to illustrate the signs of the zodiac in an almanac, 
for it is exactly like them with the exception of the addition 
of a tiara to the otherwise naked figure. To utilize the zo- 
diacal lines and letters radiating from the body, Harris added 
a key or explanation which replaced Aries, Taurus, Cancer, 
Scorpion, etc., with Heresy, Disorder, Malice, Murder and 
Treachery, etc., and which called on the " Child " to " be- 
hold that Man of Sin, the Pope, worthy thy utmost Hat- 
red." This print was reproduced in the Primer of 1737, but 
no key was added, so that the " Child " must have been not 
a little puzzled to know what the rays and letters meant. 

There was a worse lapse however, in this edition of 1737, 
The Devil's for the last leaf prints an engraving which certainly was no- 
Ptcture Card t j im g j ess t j lan t j le block of the queen in playing cards, for 
contemporary packs have just such queens. To find such 
a print in the godly New England Primer is perhaps the 

From the Ne-iu England Primer. Boston : /7J~ 


Introduction 5 1 

most curious fact yet known, and can only be accounted for 
by the probability that its purchasers were so ignorant of the 
appearance of the " Devil's picture cards " that they did not 
recognize its prototype. 

The " New English Tutor " contained pictures of Death, 
Judgment, Heaven, and Hell, but these do not seem to have Biblical and 
been repeated in the Primer. Kindred illustrations however, Worldly illus- 
of "Adam and Eve ", the " Nativity and the Passion ", 
" Christ's Death", and " The Assension " were given in the 
Salem edition of 1784, and some of these prints were used 
in other issues printed in the decade 17901 800. This Salem 
edition contained pictures of " a little boy and girl bestow- 
ing charity " and "a good Boy and Girl at their Books." 
More important still was its inclusion of certain prints of 
animals taken from the " Royal Primer," which, with the al- 
ready described poems, was the first true bid for popularity 
the Primer had ever made. Some other worldly prints were 
included, among them two designed to teach the alphabet, 
no longer by Bible extracts, but by pictures of playthings, 
animals, etc. 

This secularizing was an attack by its friends from which 
the book never quite recovered, for the printers having Extinction of 
once found how much more saleable such primers were, and 
parents having found how much more readily their children 
learned, both united in encouraging more popular school- 
books, and very quickly illustrated primers, which aimed to 
please rather than to torture, were multiplied. The New 
England Primer made a brave fight, but it was a hopeless 
battle. Slowly printer after printer abandoned the printing 
of editions of the little work, in favor of some more popular 

5 2 Introduction 

compilation. It was driven from the cities, then from the 
villages, and finally from the farm houses. Editions were 
constantly printed, but steadily it lost its place as a book of 
instruction. In the schools it was replaced by other and bet- 
ter books, and though an edition was printed as recently as 
1886, it is to be questioned if an American child of to-day 
is being taught by the famous little manual. 

IT is impossible to measure the work the Primer accom- 
plished. If the Puritan exodus is viewed with the eyes 
of the Hon. William Stoughton, who asserted that 
" God sifted a whole nation that he might send choice 
grain into this wilderness," is accepted there was little left 
for the Primer to do. This however is a public speaker's 
view, and therefore probably approximated more to what 
would please his audience, than to the truth. Certainly 
the court records of early New England reveal a condition 
akin to all frontier settlements in lawlessness and immorality, 
and in proportion to population show a greater percentage 
of all crimes than would be found even in our large cities 
of to-day, bearing out the statement of the Rev. John White, 
a leading Puritan that a large part of the first settlers 
of New England were " a multitude of rude ungovernable 
persons, the very scum of the land." It is related that a 
newly installed New England pastor said to a spinster parish- 
ioner "I hope, madam, you believe in total depravity," and 
received the prompt response: "Oh, parson, what a fine 
doctrine it would be, if folks only lived up to it." There 

GEORGE the Second 

From the Ne-iv England Primer. Boston : 


Introduction 5 3 

was far more living up to total depravity in early New Eng- 
land than most people suspect, and when one reads the ^ he Work f 
charges brought against them by their own ministers, it is not 
difficult to realize why the New England clergy dwelt so 
much on the terrors of hell ; one even becomes sympathetic 
with the Presbyterian clergyman who said with disgust that 
" the Universalists believe that all men will be saved, but 
we hope for better things." Whatever the first years of New 
England may have been, however, the church and the school 
were at work, and what they did needs no other monument 
than the history of the last two hundred years. The New 
England Primer is dead, but it died on a victorious battle 
field, and its epitaph may well be that written of Noah 
Webster's Spelling Book : 

"It taught millions to read, and not one to sin." 





tjWVS/ (.'?) f+i \!w (*; (*i \&J (* ) f*J 


THE following is a facsimile of the earliest known edition of the New England Primer, 
taken from the unique copy in the Lenox Library. From its lacking one leaf in the 
first signature, it is presumed that a portrait of the reigning King of Great Britain 
preceded the title page. Part of pages 21-2, and all of pages 23-4 are lacking, but the prob- 
able text is restored in this reprint. The last leaf is also wanting, the text of which is sup- 
plied so far as possible. 


3 Enlarged. 

nFor the more eafy attalniit 

To which is added, 
The AfTembly of Divines 


STO If.- Printed byS Kneetan<l f & 
by the Boofefclls 1717 

O rjm/"3/'^7i'" *'*< ?Vlir r i'>'i 

:*&& j^ fisw sai iS3vA\> 



A bt & 

<. ue. win nor acpart jrcm if. 

Chap.2;. 17,18. Let not thy bf art 
tnvyfinnersjiut be tbou in the f fir 
of the Lord all the day long. 

For Jure ly tbere is an end, and 
thy cxpt flat ion Jk&ll not be eut oj} t 

Epb. i, I* Qfildrtn obey your Pa- 
rents in the Lord, for this is rigbt* 
^Of Serving GOD. 

1. God wi II b&vt no time tofavf 
us, if we find, n-o day toftrve Him. 

2. Shall we have fix days in 
feven t and God not one * 

I Chron.-28s9,Myfan,fcnw] tbau 
theGodofibyFa'tber&ferve Him with 
aptrfetfbetirtgfwitb a willing mind, 
for tbf Lordjearcbetb all beans. 

abcdcfghijklm ^ 



AEIOUY aeiou 


i1<Jmn Pq rftvw 


Double Letters, 

//' Kk LI Mm Nn Oo P 
It a Ink Double Letters 





The Great Englifh Letters, 

31 & 2D e 5P 45 


The Small Englifh Letters. 


Greac Letters. 


tf/?^ Sy It ablet for Children. 

ab eb ib ob ub 























































































g a 


g* 1 












































ta te ti to tu 

Words of one Syllable. 
































































Words of two Syllables. 

Ab-fent Abfent 

Bold-ly Boldly 

Con-ftant Conftant 

De-pend Depend 

En-clofe Enclofe 

Fa-thet Father 

Glory Glory 

Hus-band Husband 

Words of three Syllables, 

A-bu-fing Abufing 

Be- witch- ing Bewitching 

Con-found'ed Confounded 

Drun-fcen-nefs Drunkennefs 

E-raf-mus Erafmus 

Facul-ty Faculty 

God-li-nefs Godlinefs 

Ho-li-nefs Holinefs 

Jm-pu-denr Impudent 

Ka*len-dei Kalender. 

Words of four Syllable?. 
Ac-corn pa-ny Accompany 

Be-ne vo-lence Benevolence 

Ce-re-mo ny Ceremony 

Difcon-tent-ed Dlfcontented 

E-ver-laft-ing Everlafting 

Fi-deli-ty Fidelity 

Glo-ri-fy-ing Glorifying 

Hu-mi-li ty Humility 

In-fir-mi-ty Infirmity. 
Words of five Syllables. 

Ad mi-ra-ti-on Admiration 

Be-ne-fi-ci al Beneficial 

Con-lb'la ti-on Confoiation 

De cla ra ti on Declaration 

Ex hor-ta- ti-on Exhortation 

For-ni.cati on Fornication ti-on Generation 

Ha-bi'ta-ti-on Habitation 

In-vi-tation Invitauon 





In Adam's Fall 
We Siuned ail. 

Thy Life to Mend 
This Beck Attend. 

The Cat doth play 
And after flay. 

A Dog will bite 
A Thief at night. 

An Eagle* flight 
Is out of fight. 

The Idle Fool 
Is whjpc at School, 

As runs the C/ap 
Mans life doth pafs. 

My BooS and Heart 
Shall never pwt. 

feels the Rod 
Yet bicfles GOD. 

Our KJNG the 

No man of blood. 

The Lion bold 

The Lamb doth hold. 


In Time of Spring, 

The Royal Oak 
it was the Tree 

That fav'd His 

Peter denies 

His Lord and cries 

Queen Efbtr cotncs 

in Royal State 
To Save the JEWS 
from difmal Fate 

Rachel dothtnour, 
For her firft born. 

Samuel anoints 
Whom Cod appoint!: 

6 7 

Time cuts down aSJ 
Boch great and foul!. 

ITriflJWwa ureous W ife 
Made David leek his 

in the Sea 
God's Voice obey. 

Xerxes the great did 

And (o mult you & I, 

Tontb forward (lips 
Death fooneJt -nips, 

Zacbtus fie 
Did climb the Tree 
Lord to fee, 


Now tbe Cbild being entrtd in his 
Letters end Spelling, let him 
team tbefe and fucb like Sen* 
lewes by Heart, whereby be wt/J 
le both inflrutied in bis Duty, 
<wd encouraged in bis Learning, 

Tbe Dutiful a/ATr Promifct, 


Will fear GOD,and. honour the KINC5. 
I will honour my Father & Mother. 
I will obty my Soperiours. 
1 will Submfl to my Eldcr$ 
I will Love my Friends, 
1 will hate no Man. 
I will forgive my Enemies, and ptay to 
f God for {hem. 

* will a $ much as in me lies XciftH God'* 

I will learn my Gatechifrfi. 
I will kp the Lord's Day Holy; 
I will Keverence God's Santfuary, 
For our GOD is a. con fuming 

An Alphabet ofLe/wsfor Youth. 

A Wife Son mates a glad Fathcr.bat 
a fooHfo Son is the heavtoefs of 
his Matter. 

BEtter as a little with the fear of the 
Lord, than great fcreafure and trou- 
ble therewith, 

COme unro CHRIST ai! ye that la. 
bour and are heavy laden, and He 
will give you relt. 

not the abominable thing which 
\ hate, faith the Lord. 
k Xcept a Man be born again, he cait- 

not fee the Kingdom of God. 
'Oolilhnefs is bound up in the heart of 
a Child, but the rod of CoT 
fiwll drive it far from him. 
Kieve, not the Holy Spirit. 

HOIinels becomes God's Houfe for 
TTT Is good for me to draw near unto 


lepthy Heart with allDiligcnee, tot 
out of it are the iflues of Lifr. 
lars (hall have their part in the hire 
r which burns with fire and brimltone. 

MAny are the Afflictions of the 
Righteous, but the Lord delivers 
ncjn out of 

NOW is the acc<?pte<* time, now is 
the (Uy of &ivacion. 
OTjt of tnc abundance of the bearc 
the mou^h fpeakecr:. 

PRay to thv Father which is in fecret, 
^od thy father which iites in fccrot, 
lhall reward thee openly. 

Hit you like Men, be ftrong, ftand. 

lait in the Faitb. 
fmeinber rhy Creator in the days 

of thy Youth. 
[ivation bclongeih to the Lord, 

B Truft 

TFufl in God at ill times y peopK 
pout out your hearts before him. 
UPon the wicked God fhall rain an 
horribje T empeft. 
O to the wicked, it flull be 10 
with him, for the feward of .his 
fball be given hin. 

ort onc a otber da]| y wHle |s 

is ailed to day, Jdt any of you 
entd through the deceitjulnds of 

YOung Men ye have overcome ibe 
wicked one. 

ZEil hath confumed me, bfcaufe thy 
enemies have forgotten the word 1 ? 
of God. Choice Sentences. 

i. Praying will make thee leave fin 
,. or finning will make ihce leave 

a. o'ur Wea'<nef$ and Inabilities break 
no? the bond of our Dmie5. 

3 Whac we are a{raJd to fpcalc before 
Men, we (hould be alrsid to thinic btfoic 


The LORD's Trayer. 

OUR ? ther which art in Ha.v?n, 
Hil-low-ed be thy Name. Thy 
Kingdom come. Thy Will be done on 
Eirtb as it is in He* yen. Give ui this 
day our dai-!y Bread, And for-give u<S 
our Debts as we for-give our Deb-tor?. 
And lead us not in. to Temp-ta-ti'On! but 
dHi-ver us from evil| for thine is the 
Kingdom, the Power and the Glo.ry, for 
ever, A-MEN. 


Be-Hve in GOD the Fa-ther Almigh- 
ty, Ma-ker of Hea.ven and Eaftn, And 
in Je-fus Ghrill his on.Iy Son our Lord, 
which was con-ceiv-ed by the 
Ghoft, Born of the Vir.gin ]ftary t Siif- 
fer-ed un-derPo-//*z/j Pi-late, wascru^ci- 
fi.ed, Dead and BiHri-ed, He de.fcen.ded 
in-to HeU. The third D.y he- a.rofe 
a.gain from the Dfld ; and af.feen-ded 
in-to Hea.n and fit^teth on the Right. 
Hand of God the Fa-ther 
From thence he (tall come 



the quick and the dead. I be-Iieve in the 
Ho-fy Ghott, the Ho-Jy Ca-tho-lick 
Church, the u-ni- on ofSaims,the 
Fof-givf-nefs of Sins, the Re-fur.rec.ti.on 
of the Body, and the Life E-vcr-fcif-ing 

Tin Ten Commandments. Exod. XX. 

GOD fpAlte all tli efeWorjj. faying, 
am fbe Lord thy God, vbicb bavs 
brought tbee out of the Land of jgyft t 
cut cf the Houfe of Bondage. 

I. TChou (hiit have no other go3s 
before me. 

II. Thou (halt not make unto thee any 
graven Image, or any likenefs o{ any 
thing that i$ in Heaven above, cr lhat u 
in the Earth beneath, or that is in the 
Water under the Earth $ thou net 
bow down thy felf to them, nor ferve 
them, for I the Lord thy God am a jea. 

us Gqd, yifiting the iniquity of the F^ 
lersupon the Children, unto the third 


and fourth* ~ - ' "\ 

we, aijd the \ 

of them ttt 



will DC 

it bo. 1 



(halt IK i 

nor thy 

nor thy 







'ct thy 


ior hij 



tng, Ho 

- and 



and fourth Generation of them that hate 
me and {hewing Mercy unto thoufands 
of them that love Me and keep my Com- 

III. Thou fhalt not take the Name of 
the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord 
will not hold him guiltlefs that taketh his 
Name in vain. 

IV. Remember the Sabbath Day and keep 
it holy, fix Days (halt thou labor and do 
all thy Work, but the feventh day is the 
Sabbath of the Lord thy God, in it thou 
(halt not do any work, thou nor thy Son, 
nor thy Daughter, nor thy Man Servant, 
nor thy Maid Servant, nor thy Cattle, nor 
the Stranger that is within thy Gates, for 
in fix Days the Lord made Heaven and 
Earth, the Sea,and all that in them is,and 
refted the feventh Day, wherefore the Lord 
blefsed the Sabbath Day and hallowed it. 

V. Honor thy Father and thy Mother, 
that thy Days may be long upon the Land 
which the Lord thy God giveth thee. 

VI. Thou fhalt not Kill. 

[Restoration of lacking text] 


VII. Thou (halt not commit Adultery. 

VIII. Thou (halt not Steal. 

IX. Thou (halt not bear falfe Witnefs 
againit thy Neighbor. 

X. Thou (halt not covet thy Neigh- 
bor's Houfe, thou (halt not covet thy 
Neighbor's Wife, nor his Man Servant, 
nor his Maid Servant, nor his Ox, nor 
his Afs, nor anything that is thy Neigh- 

These Words which I command thee this 
Day shall be in thy Heart. 


God hath commanded faying, Ho- 
nour thy Father and Mother, and 
whofo curfeth Father or Mother, let him 
die the Death. Mat. 15. 4. 

Children obey your Parents in the 
Lord, for this is right. 

2. Honour thy Father and Mother, 
(which is the firft Commandment with 

[Restoration of lacking 1ext~\ 

r * u ~&&aRGE tlfc Third, 

fd *&&& 22d J7- 

From the Ne<w England Primer. Boston : 1762 


3. That it may be well with thee, 
and that thou mayft live long on the 

Children, obey your Parents in all 
Things, for that is well pleafing unto the 
Lord. Col. 3, 20. 

The Eye that mocketh his Father, 
and defpifeth the Inftruction of his 
Mother, let the Ravens of the Valley 
pluck it out, and the young Eagles eat 

Father, I have finned againft Heaven, 
and before thee. Luke 15, 10. 

19. I am no more worthy to be called 
thy Son. 

No man ever hated his own flefh, but 
nourifheth and cherifheth it. Ephes. 

5> 19- 

I pray thee let my Father and Mother 

come and abide with you, till I know 
what God will do for me. i Sam. 
22, 3. 

My Son, help thy Father in his Age, 
and grieve him not as long as he liveth. 

[Restoration of lacking text] 


12. And if his Underftanding fail, 
have patience with him, and defpife him 
not when them art in thy full Strength. 
Whofo curfeth his Father or his Moth- 
er, his Lamp {hall be put out in obfcure 
Darknefs. Prov. 20, 20. 


I in the Burying Place may fee 

Graves fhorter there than I ; 
From Death's Arreft no Age is free, 

Young Children too may die ; 
My God, may fuch an awful Sight, 

Awakening be to me ! 
Oh ! that by early Grace I might 

For Death prepared be. 


Firft in the Morning when thou doft 


To God for his Grace thy Petition make, 
Some Heavenly Petition ufe daily to fay, 
That the God of Heaven may blefs 

thee alway. 

[Restoration of lacking text~\ 


Good Children tnufl 

Fear Gad all Day, Love* 
Parents obey y In Secrtt Pray, 

tfofatfetltingfay, Mind little flay, 
By no Sinfflay) Make no delay t 
in daing Good. 

Awake, arife, bebold thou baft 
Tbj life a Leaf, tby Breath a BtaR-, 
At Ntgbt Ijc down prepaid to htvf 
TbyJJftp,tbydeatb t tby ltd,tby grave. 

Learn thefe four Lines by Heart- 

Have Communion with few* 
Be Intimate with ONE. 
Deal jttflly with all. 
Speak Evil of none. 

TheNamesandOrder of theBooks 
f rheOld andNew-Teitamenr. 


J. Samuel 
II. Samuel 
I. Kings 
11 Kings 

I. Chronicles 

II. ChronUies 


Solomons Song 




















The Afts 
I. Corinthians 
II- Corinthians 
I. ThefTalonians 
H- Theffalonians 

1 Timothy. 

II. Timothy 





I Peter 
II. Pefer 
I- John 

II John 

III John 

The numeral Letters and Fignrts, 
which ferve for tie ready finding of arty 
Chapter, Pfalm, and Verje in tbetiille. 

















































3 9 


ao twenty 

50d ai twenty one 

sxii z twenty two 

x&iii *J twenty three 

xxfa *4 twenty four 

yyv ai twenty five 

3BVi 16 twenty fix 

xxvli 17 twenty fevco 

twenty tight 

79 twenty nine 

xxx 30 thirty 

xxxi ^t tl^irry one 

v ^u 31. thirty two 

xxx ii 33 thirty three 

xxxiv 34 thirty four 

xxxv 35 thirty five 

xxxvi 36 thirty fix 

37 thirty fevci 

38 thirty ejghc 

39 thirty nittc 
xi q* forty 

xli 41 forty ons 

xlii 41 forty two 

u 43 forty three 

44 forty fout 

f5 forty fivs 

4^ forty iiK 

47 forty frvefl 

48 forty eight 

49 forty, niuc 
5^> fifcy 

5i fcfry one 

5* 1 fifty two 

J? fifry tbice 

54 pft V fout 

Iv 55 fifty five 

Ivi 56 fi^y K X 

Ivii 57 fifty fevrn 

IV! ii 58 fifty eight 

|ix 59 fifrY ninc 

lx 60 fixty , 

ixi <5i liy one 

1-xii 61 fixtytwo 

Ixv 5 





7 fewncy. 

7 feventy one 

;* . ^ feventy two 


7 five 


78 icvcmy eight 


hxijt 79 fwnry nine 

Jxxx 80 eighty 

Ixxxi 8 1 eighty one 

)xx*i 81 eighty two 

Ixxxiii 83 eighty three 

htxxiv 84 e 'ghty fur 

ixvxv 85 eighty five 

Ixxxvi 8<5 eighty fix 

hmcvii 87 eighty feve.i 

hxxviii 88 eighty eight 

Ixxxix 89 eighty nine 

xc 90 r.inety 

xci 91 ninety one 

xcii 9% ninety two 

xciii 93 ninety three 

xci\7 y4 ninety four 

xcv 95 ninety five 

xcvi 9<* nmcty fix 

^ c vi 97 ninety fcven 

xcviii 98 ninety e Jg ht 

Kcix 99 ninety n me 

? 10 an hundred 



R, Jdn Rogen, Minitfer of 

and was burnt 

tfnythe fourteenth, 1^54-HjsWjfe, 

with nine faiaUChildien,and one 


at herBreaft,followingMm to the 
Stake,wSth which forrowful fight 
he was no; in the leaft daunted. 
tut with wonderful Patience died 
couragioufly for the Golpel of 

tw Days before fas 
writ tbe following Exhortation 
to bis Children. 

Q ear my Children fo my 
whom God hath dearly bought, 
up his Laws within yoor heart, 

and print them In. your thought 
1 leave you hem a little Book, 

for you to look 

and to Pain. 

my Iron 

the darL 

Not many diys before my Death- 

I did compere this Work. 
And for Example to your Youth, 

to whom I wifh ali good } 
I fend you here God's perfefl Truth,' 

and feel it with my Bfood 
To you my Heirs of earthly Things; 

which I do leave behind. 
That you may read and undertone 4 , 

and keep it in your mind. 
That as you have been Heirs of thet 

which once fhaJI wear away, 
You alfo may poffefs that part, 

which never ihall decay. 
Keep always GOD before your cyery 

with all your whole intent ; 
Commit no Sin in any wife, 

Veep his Command erne nt. 
Abhor that arrant Whore of Rome, 

and all her Biafphemie? ; 
And drink not of her cursed Cup, 

obey not her decrw. 
Give honour to your Mother dear, 

remember well her pa to 5 

An3 recompenfe fcer In fcer Age 

with the like love again. 
Be always ready for her twlp> 

and let her not decay } 
Remember well your Fathc rail . 

that (hould have been your flay. 
Give of your Portion to ihePoor, 

as Riches do arife ; 
And from -the needy naked Soul 

turn not away your eyej. 
For he that doth not hear the cry 

of thofe that ftand in need> 
Shall cry himfclf and not be heard, 

when he does hope to fpeed. 
If GOD hath given you increafe 

and bleUed well your {fore, 
Remember you are put in truft, 

and ftiould relieve the poor. 
Beware of feul and filthy Lufo, 

let fuoh things have no place, 
Keep clean your Veflefs in the Lord, 

thai he may you embrace. 
Ye are the Temples of the Lord, 

for you are dearly bougbt , 

And they that do defile the fame 

{toll furely come to nought. 
Be nevpr Proud by my mean?, 

build not thy houfe too higlj, 
But always have before yeur cye? ; 

that -you are born to die. 
Defraud not him that hired is, 

your labour to fuftaUi; 
And pay him ftill without delay, 

his wages for bis pain. 
And as you wouU another Man 

ogairiH you ffoould p rocec(S , 
Do you the fame to them again. 

if they do (land in need. 
Impart your Fortion to the Poor, 

in Money and in Meat, 
And fend the feeble fainting Soul 

of that which you do eat. 
Ask Counfel always of the wile, 

oive ear unto the end, 
And ne'r refute the fweet rebufce 
' of him that is thy Friend. 
Be always thankful to the Lord, 

wHh Prayer and with mile, 

Begging of him to blefs your work 

and to direct your ways, 
Seekfitftl fay the living GOD, 

and always "him adore j 
And then be -fure that he will bjcfs 

your basket and your flore. 
And J befecch AlroJglny GOD, 

replenifh you with Grace, 
That I may meet you in the Hca/rs, 

and fee you face to face. 
And tlio' the Fire my Body burns 

contrary to my kind ; 
That I cannot enjoy your love, 

according to my mind. 
Yet 1 60 bope that when the Heav'ns 

fhaij vanjft like a fcrowl, 
1 1hall fee you in perfe^ fhipe, 

in Body and in $ouj, 
And that I miy enjoy your love 

and you enjoy the land 
I do befcech the living LORD 

ko hold you in his hand. 
Though here my Body be adjudg*4 
in flaming Fire to fry, 


My Soul I trull will ftraight afcend, 

to live with GOD on high. 
"What though this Catc^ft (mart a 

vvhat though this Life decay, 
My Soul I trull will be with GOD, 

and live with him for aye. 
X know I am a Sinner born, 

from the Original ; 
that I do delerve to die, 

by my Fore-Fathers lafl. 
ut by our Saviour's precious Bloo3^ 

which on the Croft was ipilr, 
Who freely offer'd up his Lifr, 

to fave our Souls from Guilr, 
I hope Redemption I fhall havr, 

and ail that in him trull ; 
When I fliall fee him face to face, 

and live Among the Jult. 
Why then fliould I fear Deaths grim loolf, 

fjnce Chriil for me did die ? , 
For King and Csfar, Rich and Poor, 

the force of Death, mutt trie. 
When I am chained to the Stake, 

and Faggots girt me round, 


Then pray the Lord my Soul Jn 

may be with Glory crown'd. 
Come welcome Death, the end of fears, 

lam prepar'd to die j 
Ttofe earthly Flames will fend my Soul, 

np to the Lord OR high. 
Earewel my Children to the World* 

where you mutt yt remain* 
The Lord of.Hoft be your defrncfr 

til) we do meet again. 
Farcwel my true and Joving 1 Wjre ? 

my ChjJdren sod my Friends, 
I hope in Heaven to fee you ail, 

when all tbinos have their end* 
If you go on toierve ttie Lord, 

as you have now begun, 
You fhall walk fafely all your dayi 

until your life be done. 
COD grant you fo to end your days. 

as he /hall think ir belt, 
That I may meet you in the Heav'fls. 

where I do hope to reft. 





Agreed upon by the Reverend 
Afftmbly of D i v i n es at 

Qu eft T 71 7 Hat t* tbf chief End 
VV of Man ? 

Anfjff. Man's chief End is to 
Glorify God, and to Em'oy Him 
for ever, 

Q. What Rxk batb God given to 
dire ft us how we may glorify and 
enjoy Him ? 

A. The Word of God which is 
contained in the Scriptures of the 


Old and New Tefhment, is th 
only Rule to dirett us how we 
roay glorify and enjoy him* 

Q What do the Scriptures prin- 
cipally teacb ? 

A. The Scriptures principally 
teacb,what Man is to believe con- 
cerning God, and what duty God 
reqoireth of Man. 

Q; Wbat it God > 

A God is a Spirit, Infinite, E- 

terr.a], and Unchangeable, in His 

JBeing, Wifdom, Power, Holinefs, 

Juftice, Goodnefs and Truth. 

Q. Are ihert mortGcds than Ons ? 

A, There is bat ONE only, 
the livings/id true God. 

Q. How ma Tij Ptrfotis are iliere 
in the Gcd-foad f 
'A. There areThree Peifofls in 


the God-Head, the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghoft,* tliefe 
Three are One GOD the ftme in 
SuUtance.equal in Power 8c r ilory. 
n mat are tbtDecrces c] QodJ 
A The Decrees of God are his 
eternal Purpofe, according to the 
Counfel of his own Will T/^;eoy 
for his own Glory, he hath tore- to 1s 

Q. Hew dpth God execute Vis 


A. God cxecuifth M* Decrees 
ia the V/orks of Creation a Pro- 

fcrtx if 

A The Work of Creation is 
God ; s MaV/ ari things o No- 

in the fpacc of fi dsys, it all cs 
ry good. 

Q. How did God a ecu A\.*n ? 

A. God created Man Male and 
Fern ile, nfrcr liis own Image, in 
Knowledge, Rigbfeoufncfs, and 
Holinefs. 'r/nh Dominion over 
the u/sajuicj. 

Ql f 7 1>st<srt Gfds WrrksoJPrcvidwe? 
A. Cod's Woiks of" Providence 
sic his molt holy.ivife & power- 
ful preferring & gcverir,g-ail his 
dearies andall their 
&b*t fitch! Affe 

tjtatt vtottein }:c was created ? 

A. WhenGod had createdMao, 
neentrea into a CovensnrofLife 
6 ld e 7 C 5 fo 


of the Tree of knowledge of gooc! 
and evil upon pain of Death. 

Q. Did 'our frftPdrt 'Jits continue in 
the eflate wbertin ihey were creatsA > 

A. Our fiiftParents .being lefc to 
the freedom of their ownWUJ,fl! 
from theeffafe wherein they wers 
created, by finning again God, 

Q. Wh*t ii Sin ! 

A. Sin is any want of Confor- 
mity onto, or Tfanfgfeffion of the 
Law of God, 

Q. What was thg Sin wherfly our 
fall Part ms fell from ibe eflatc 
wherein tfay were create! ? 

A. The Sin whereby our fuit 
Parents fell from the eftate where- 
in they were created, was their 

eating the forbidden fraik 

Q. Did 


Q. bidallMtntinlftttin A 

m'j/i'ff tronfgrcffion ? 

A. The Covenant being made 
wifh Adam, not only forhimfelf 
but for his Pofterity, all Mankind 

defcending from him by ordinary 
Generation, finned in mm,8c fell 
with him in his firft tranfgreflion. 

Q; Into v&at cflate did lit Fall 
bring Mankind ? 

A* The Fall brought Mankind 
into an eftate of Sin and Mifery, 

Q. Wbfrein cenffts ibc fmfulntft 
of that ejlate wbereinto Man fell $ 

A. The finfulnefs of that eftate 
whereintoMan fell, confiftsinthe 
Guilt of Adam's firft Sin,the want 
orOriginalRightecufnefs,and the 
Corruption of his whole Nature, 
which is commonly calledOriginal 


Sin,rogether wirhall 

greffions which proceed from it. 

Qi Wbafts the Mtftry erf that 
eftate whertlnto Man fell ? 
^ A. AiiMankind bycheirfall,lolt 
Communion with God, are undei 
his Wrath 8c Curfe, and fo mads 
liable to all Miferiesln thisLife, 
to Death it felf, and to the pains 
of Hll for ever. 

Qj Did God leave all Man kind to 
fgr'tjb in ibg %ateoj Sin tfMifery > 

A. God having out of his meet 
good pleafure from all lern.Ur 
Elefted fome to evetlafting Life, 
did eniejintoaCovenant of Grace, 
to deliver them out of the Hare of 
Sin 8c Mifery, and to being them 
into a Hate of Salvation by a Re 


QWbo is 

A* The onlyRedeemcr ofGoda 
Eleft,is the Lord JefusChtift, who 
being the eternal Son of God,be- 
came Man,and fo was, and conti- 
nues to be God and Man in two 
diftinft Natures, and one Perfon 
for ever. 

Q; Hew did Gbrifl being the Sen 
of God become Man ? 

A. Chrift the Son of God be- 
came taking to himfelf a 
true Body and a reafonable Soul, 
being conceived by the power of 
the Holy Ghoft, in the Womb of 
theVirgin Mary, and born of her, 
and yet without Sin. 

Q. Wb*t Offices doth Grift exe- 
cute as our Redeemer ? 

A. Chrift 


A. Chrift as our Redeemer exe- 
cutes theOffice of a Prophet,of a 
Prieft, and of a King, both in his 
eftate ofHumfliation&Exaltation, 

Q; How doib Ojrifl execute tie 
Office of a Profhec ? 

^.Chrift executeth theOffice of 
a Prophet, in revealing to ITS "by 
his Word and Spirit, the Will of 
God for our Salvation. 

Q. Ho dotb Cbrift execute line 
Office of <iPri&~ 

A Chtift executeth the Office 
of a Prieft,in his once offering up 
himfelf aSacrifice tofatisfy Divir.e 

Juftice,8treconcile us toGod,8>c in 

Q. How dotb Cbrift txfcutt the 
Office oj a King ? 
^.Chriftexecuierh theOffice of 



From the New England Primer. Providence-, 


a King, in fubduing us tohimfelF 
in ruling and defendingus, and in 
retraining and conquering all his 
and OUT Enemies. 

Q. Wbertin did Cbrifls HuMifr 
crion covfifl ? 

A Chrift'sHumiliation coniifted 
in His being bora, and that in a 
low condition madeunder thela w 
undergoing the miferieso'T^/s life 
the wrath of God, and the cuffed 
Death of the Crofs, in being bu- 
ried and continuing under the 
power of Death for a time. 
QWhcrfin confi(l<CbnJh Exaltation 

A. Chriit's Exalration confiiteth 

in his rifing again from theDead 

on the third day, in afcendingup 

into Heaven,&htting at thtRight 

D Hand 

Hand of God the Father, and in 
coming to judge the World at 
the lalt Day. 

Q; How are we madePartaktn of 
tbe Redemption pur cbafed by Qbrifl* 

A, We are madePanakers of the 
Redemption purcbafed byChrift, 
by the effectual Application of 
it to us by his Holy Spirit. 
Q, How doib tbe Spirit apply to us 
tbe Redemption purebafed by Cbrifl) 

A. The Spirit applieth to us the 
Redemption purcliafed by Chrifl", 
by working Faith in us, Si there-' 
by uniting us to Chrilt in our 
effectual Calling. 

Q. IV bar it tffctiual Calling ? 

^.EffeaunlCailing is theWork 
oFGod's Spirit, whereby convinc- 
ing us of our Siu 8c Mifery, en- 


lightning ourMinds in theKnow- 
ledge of Chrilr, fit renewing out 
Willsjbe doth peifwade tenable 
us ro embrace Jefus Chiift, free- 
ly offered to us in theGofpsi 
QWbatBcneftsdotbey that are iff ec- 
tttafy called partake of in ib/sLift * 
A. They that areEfFeQually cai- 
led,do in thisLife partake of Juf. 
ufication, Adoption, SanQificati- 
on, & the fevcral Benefits which 

in this Life do either accompany 
or flow horn them. 


n is an afct of God' 
FreeGrace,wherei n he pardoneth 
U our Sins, a.nd accepteth us as 
righteous in his 

and receded by Faith alone, 


Wbtt if Adoption ? 
A. Adoption is an Act of Goers 
TreeGrace,whereby we are receiv- 
ed into the Numoer, and have 
Right to all the Priviledges of 
the Sons of God 
Q. What it Santfijuarion f 
A. Sanftification is theWotk of 
God's freeGrace,whereby we are 
renewed in the whole Man,after 
the Image of God, & are enabled 
more 8t more to die unto Sin, & 
live unto Righteoufnefs. 

What are ibe Benefits wbtcb in 

tfaarion.AdoptionV banttiication 
A. The Benefits which in this 
Life do accompany or flow from 
JulUrKation,Adoption orSanftifi- 
cation,areaffurance ofGod's love, 


peace of Conference, joy in the 
Holy Ghoft, increafe of Grace, S 
perleverance therein to the end. 

Q. What bcnrjiis do Bdievcrs re- 
ceive from Cbrijl at tbtir Death ? 

A TheSouls of Believers are at 
thekDeath made perfect inHoli- 
neis, &do immediately pafs into 
Glory, a their Bodies being (till 
united to Chrift, do reft in their 
Graves till the RefurreEUon. 

Q. What bentjns do Believers re- 
cc'ivefromCbriJi at tbeRefur region ? 

A. Acvhe RefurrelionBelievers 
being raifed up :oG'oiy, fliall be 
openly acknowledged & acquit- 
ted in the Day of Judgment, gc 
made perfeQJy blefled in full en- 
joying of God, to all Eternity. 
if tbe Duty wb'icb God 


requires of Man ? 

-A. The Duty which God re. 
quires of Man, is Obedience to 
his revealed will. 

Q; What did God at frtl reveal to 

Mtflfor the Rule oj bis Obedience ? 

A, TheRule which God at fir ft 

revealed toMan for hisObedience 

was the Moral Law. 

Q. Where is the Mcral Law 
fummarHy comprehended ? 

A. TheMoralLaw isfummart- 
ly comprehended in the Ten 

Q. Wbat is ibe Sum cf the Ten 
Commandments ? 

A. The Sum of the Ten Com- 
mandments is, To love the lord 
outGod with all our Heait, with 
all our Souls, and with all our 

I 10 

Strength, and with all our Mind, 
and our Neighbour as ourfelves. 

^ Qi What K the Preface lo ib* 
Ten Commandments ? 

A. The Preface to the Ten 
Commandments isin thefeWords, 
f am the Lord thy God, ud)icb bsvc 
brought ibce out <ifihcLandofEy pr, 
out of tbe Ho ^fe of Bondage. 

^ <i Wbat doth tbe Preface to tbc 
Ten Commandments teach ta ? 

A. The Preface ta (heTenCom- 
mandments teacheth us, that t>c- 
caufc God is the Lord, 8 our God 
and Redeemer, therefore we are 
bound to keep all his Command- 

Q; Which is ibffrfl Comm^ndmfm? 
-d.The firttCommandmcnt is.Thou 
(halt have no othtrgods brfore Me. 

Q What & rcquirtd in the 
Commandment f 

A. The fif ft Commandment re- 

quired: us to know and acknow- 
ledge Gsd to be rhe only tnseGod 
and our God, and to woifhip and 
glorify him accordingly. 

Q. Whet is forbidden in tbefsft 
Commandment ? 

A. The 6r ft Commandment for- 
biddeih the denying, or not wot* 
(hipping and glorifying the true 
God, as God and our God, & the 
giving that Woifhip andGlory to 
any ot he I which isdue to him alone 
What art (he fpecialfy taught by 

A. Thefe Words (Before we) in 
the firli CommandiTjenr,teach us, 

I 12 

ThatGod who Teeth all things,ta- 
keth notice of, and is much dif- 
pJeafed with the Sin of having 
any other god. 

Qwbicb is ihcfccondCommandmcni ? 

A. The fecond Commandment 

\S>TbouJ}M/t not make unto thee any 

GTaLrcnlmo&e.or any iikcncjs of any 

tiling that is inlieavcn abov.e, or ihat 

it in the Earth ben father that is in 

tbcWatcr under ibe Earth: Tboujhall 

not bow down tbyft/fto ihtm, nor 

ferve ibemjor I tbcLord thyG'od am 

affffhusGod, vijiiingibe Iniquities 

of tbf Fathers upon ihcCbildrert.untd 

the third and fourth Genera? ion oj 

them that hare me j& faring n, er cy 

unto thffufands of them that lovt me. 

aud keep my Commandments. 

CL Wfat is 

Commandment ? 

A. The fecond Commandment 
&: keeping pure 8c entire all fuch 
religious Worfhip & Ordinances, 
asGod hath appointed in hisWord 

Q_ What ii forbidden in tbe fecond 
Commandment ? 

A The fecond Commandment 
forbiddeth the worfhipping of 
God by Images,or any other way, 
nor appointed in his Word- 

Q. What are tbe Reafcns annexed 
to tbe fecond Commandment ? 

A. The Reafons annexed to the 
fecond Commandment, are God's 
Sovereignty over us.hisPropriety 
in us, and the Zeal he hath to 
his own Worfhip- 
'Q Wbicb istbt tbirdCommandtnenrt 

A. The third Commandment is, 
Tboufhalt not take tbt Name of tbt 
Lord tby God in vain \for the Lord 
will not bold him guiltlcfs that ta- 
kttb bis Name in vain. 

Wbat is required in tbf tbird 

A. The thirdCommandiTient re- 
quireth the holy &: reverend ufe 
of God 'sN a me.Tirles. Attributes, 
Ordinances, Word and Works. 
Q^ Wbat is j or 'bidden in tbt ibird 
Commandment ? 

A. The third Commandment 
forbjddeth all prophaning or a- 
bufingofany thing whereby God 
maketh himfelf known. 

CX What is tbc Reafon annexed 
to we tbird Commandment ? 
-d. The Reafon annexed to the 

Third Commandment is. That 
mandment may efcape Punifh- 
ment from Men yet the Lord our 
God will not fuffer them to efcape 

liis righteous Judgment. 
A The fourth Commandment 
\sficmembcr tbf Sabbath- Day tokeep 
it Holy fix Daysfidt tbou labour & 
d0aUtbyWork,buttbefcventbDay is 
thcSabfatb of tbe Lord tby Godjn it 
tboufoalt nol do any work-, tbou nor 
tbySon t nor tbyDaugbtfrjbyM.<utfer' 
vdntjtor tby Maidftrvant, nor tby 
Catlt,nor tbe Stranger that is with- 
in tbyGates -,for mfixDays tbcLord 
mtdeHeaven & Earth, tbe Sfa, 
alltbatin ibem is, 


thtSabbath Day, en & hallowed if. 

Q. What is rcquirtd in the fourth 
Commandment ? 

A. The fourth Commandment 
requireth the keeping holy to 
God fuch fet times as he hath ap- 
pointed in his Word, expreily 
one whole Day in feven to be an 
holy Sabbath to Himfelf. 

QWbicb day of the from bathGed 
appointed to bttbf weekly Sabbath* 

A. From the beginning of the 
World totheRefurreaion ofcbrift 
God appointed the feventh Day 
of the Week to be the weekly 
Sabbath, and thefirft Day of the 
Week ever fince, ro continue to 
the end of the World, which is 
the Chriftian Sabbath.. 

A. The Saibath is to be fanftified 
by an holy yeftingall thatDay,^ 
veji from fuch worldly Employ- 
mems&rRecreaiions,as ate lawful 
on other Days, & fpending the 
whole time in publickSt private 
exercifes ofGod sWorfhip, except 
fo much as is to betaken, up in 
the Works of Necefl/tyfe Mercy. 
What is for bidden in tbe fourth 

A The -fourth Commandment 
forbiddeth trie Omiffian orcate- 
lefs Performance of the Dories 
required, 8c ihe prophaning t^e 
Day by idlenefs, or doing that 
which is in it felf finful, or by 
anneceflTary Thoughrs, Words or 
Works, about worldly Employ- 
ments or Recreations* 


What are tfo*Rcaf on s annex- 
ed to tbe founb Commandment & 

A. TheReafons annexed to the 
fourth Commandment, are God's 
allowing us fix Days of theWeek 
for our own Employments, His 
challenging a fpecial Propriety in 
the feventb,1iis oWnExample,and 
his blefling the Sabbath Day. 
QWbicbis tbe fifth Comman imnt ? 

A. The fifthCommandment is, 
Honour tbyFatbtrtftby Mother, tbo>t 
tby Days may be hx? upon thr tend. 
fob/cb fbf Lord tby Qodg\v&ib tb<ft. 

Q; Wbat is required in tbrjijtb 
Commandment ? 

A. The fiftbCommandmeufr re- 
quirefhfhe preferving theHonour 
8c performing the Dutiesbelong 
ing to every one in their fevers! 


Places and^ Relations, as Superi- 
ours, Inferipurs, or Equals. 

Q. What is forbidden In tbtfftb 
Commandment ? 

A. The fifth Commandment 
forbiddeth the neglefting ordoing 
any thing againlt the Honour and 
Duty which belongerh to every 
one in their feveral Places 8c Re- 

Q. Wbat is tbe Reafon annexed 
10 tbefiftb Commandment ? 

A. The Rcafon annexed to the 
fifth Commandment, is a proroife 
of long Life be Profperity,(as far- 
as it (hall ferve for God's Glory 
and their own good; to all fuch 
as keep this Commandment. 
frWbieb h tbtfxlbCommandmcriT* 

A. Thefixtb Commandment is. 


Thou fait not Kill. 

Q. What tf r (quired In tbefixt b 
Commandment t 

A. The fixth Commandment 
requireth all lawful Endeavours 
to preferve our ownLife,and the 
Life of others. 

Q.. What if forbidden in tbffixtb 
ComHianftment ? 

A. The fixth Commandment 
forbiddeth the taking away of 
our own Life, or the Life of our 
Neighbour unjultly, and whatfo- 
everfendeth thereunto. 

is, 'TbouJJjaft notcommii.Aftultery, 
Q. What it required in tbc ft- 
venw Commandment ? 

E ^1 


AThe feventhComrnandment 
requirethlhe prefervation of out 
own, and oarNeighbour'sChalti- 
ty, in Hearr,Speech& Behaviour, 

Q. What if forbidden in tbffe* 
Vtntb Commandment ? 

AThe fevetnhCommandment 
forViddeth all unchaftThoughts, 
Words and A&ions. 
QWbicb it tfo ei$rfbCommanAment\ 

A. The eight hCommandment 
is, Tbou [h&lt not Steal, 

Q_ What is required in the tightb 
Commandment f 

A The eighth Commandment 
Tequireth the lawful procuf ingK 
Eftate of our felves and others. 
QWbrt if forbidden in tbe ek ' 
C&mmandment ? 

A. TheelghthComTnandfpenfc 
foibiddeth whatfoever doth, or 
may unjuftly hinder our own,or 
OUT Neighbours Wealth or out- 
ward Ejtate. 

i4 the ninthCommandment 
The ninth Commandment 
not bear faJfeWitnefs 
again fltby Neighbour. 

Q; What it required in the ninth 
Commandment ? 

A. The ninth Commandment 
requireth the maintaining and 
promoting oFTruth betweenMan 
and Man, and of our own, & our 

HeighbouTsgoodNair3e s efpeciai- 
ly in Witnefs bearing. 

Q, What i$ jorbidden m the 
nintb Commandment ? 

-d-The mnthCommandmentfbr- 


bjddeth whatsoever is prejudici- 
al toTruthjOrinjurious to ourown 
orour Neighbours good Name, 
QWbkJ) is tbcTentbCotnmandmcnt$ 

A. TheTenth Commandment 
is, Thoujhalt fi 'et covet thy Neigh- 
bour's Hcufe, tboufkatt not covet 
fbyJNttgJjhw't Wife, ncf^iis Msn 
fcrvanr, r or bis Maid ftrvant^nor 
bif OA-, nor his Aff^ r.or any thing 
tbat is tby Neighbour f, 

Q. What if required in the tenth 
Commandment $ 

A. The tendi Commandment 
reqaireth fuUCofitentment with 
chariraMeffameofSpirir towards 
oar Neighbour,& all that is his. 

Ct What is forbidden in ibc 
tenth Commandment $ 


ATheTenthCommandment fbr- 
biddeth allDifcontenrment with 
our own eftate^en vying or griev- 
ing at the good four/Neighbour, 
and all inordinate motions & af- 
feftions to any thing that is his, 

O h any Mart able pcrjttlty to 
Rtep the Commandments of God * 

A> NomcermanfincetheFall 
is able in this Life peffe^ly to 
keep theCommandmenis ofGod 
but darly doth break them in 
Thought, Word and Deed. 


A. SomeSins in themfelves Sc 
by reafon offeveral Aggr a vat tons 
are more heinous in the fight of 
God than others. 

Q, What dotb cvtryftn dtferve ? 


A. Every Sin deferveth God's 
Wrath and Curfe, both in this 
Life,and that which is tocome* 

Q; What dotb God require of 
t/s, that we may efcapebisW rath and 
Curfc^ due u to us for Sin ? 
yi,To efcape theWrath & Curfe 
of God due to us for Sin, God re* 
quiretb of usFajth inTefusChrift, 
Repentance unto Lire, with the 
diligent ufeofalloutwardMeans 
whereby Chrilt communicateth 
to us the benefits ofRedemption, 

Q^ What is Faith infe/usChfift? 

A. Faith in Jefus Chrittis a 
favingGrace,whereby we receive 
and reft upon him alonefor Sal- 
vation, as He is offered to us in 
the Gofpel 



'A. Repentance unto Life, is a 
faving Grace, whereby a Sinner 
out of a truefenfe of hisSin,and. 
apprehenfion of theMercy ofGod 
5n Chrift, doth wixh grief & ha 
tred of his Sin,turn from ir unto 
GodjWith full purpofe of, & en- 
deavour afrer new Obedience. 

QWbot are the outward ordina- 
ry means wbcrcbyChriflcommunion- 
t fib fa us the benefits of Redemption* 
A, The oinwafd and ordinary 
means wherebyChrift communi- 
carelrMo us the benefits of Re- 
demption are hisOrdinances, e 
pecially theWord.Sacraments & 
Prayer 5 all which are made ef- 
feftual to theEieaforSalvatiorr, 

Q; How it the word made 
*9 Selvation ? 


A. The Spirit of God maketh 
file Reading, but efpecially he 
Preachingof theWord^aneffeflu- 
al Means of Convincing & Con- 
verting Sinners, and of building 
them up in Holinefs Sc Comfort, 
through Faith unto Salvation. 

Q^Hcw is tbtWord to be Rfrd and 
heard that tt may become effectual 
to Salvation ? 

ThattheWord may become 
effectual toSalvation,wemuft at- 
tend thereunto with diligence, 
Preparation & Prayer, receive it 
wit hFaith&Love,lay it op in our 
Hearts,&praaice it in our Lives. 
Q; Horn doth :bt Sacraments^ be- 
come fffeffuat means of Salvation? 
A. TheSacraments become et- 
Means of Salvation, not 


from anyvertue iivthem,orinhjm 
that dotk adminiftet them, but 
only by the b-leffingofChrii^gnd 
the working of theSpirit in theja 
that by Faith receive them, 

Q^ Wbai is a Sacrament ? 

A. A Sacrament is'ah holy Or- 
dinance inftituted by Chiilt, 
wherein by fenfihleSigns,Ctuiit 
3nd t he benefits of jheNewCove- 
nanr are ieprefented,fealed,and 
applied to Btficvers. 

Q. Wfotbare tfo Sicrcments of 
ibe "New Tcflament ? 

A. TheSacjamentsoftheMcw 
Teftament, are Baptifm, and tfie 
Lord's Supper. 

Q. Wbai is Bapiifm? 
-d.Baptifm isaSacrament,where- 
in by wafhiog withWatei in the 


Name of th either, 8c oFrheSon, 

and of the H^X Ghoft * d .^ fig- 
nUy and feat our ingrafting into 

fifsoftheCo^ enantofGrace an d 
our Engagement to be rheLord's. 

O. ft wW^ i*B*ftif! to be ad* 
* /t >3 

, . . 

A Baptifr^snottobeadmim. 

ftred to anv that are ouc of the 
^fible Church rill they profefs 

vinoi.v Vjiiui, ^ ... j/^v^j: 

their 'Faith fnChnandObedt- 


Church ;> be B^tifed 


jl TheLorA' 5 Su PP er is *!5 W ' 
menT wherein by giving and re- 
"f. n : r !^. id & Wine according 

tt'SST AWdaimttt, His 


Death is fhewed forth, and the 
worthy Receivers are not after a 
corporal and carnal Manner, but 
by Faith made Panakers of His 
Body & Blood, with all bishene- 
firs, to their Spiritual Nourifh* 
mentand growth in Grace. 

Q^ What is required in ibe uoor 
tby receiving of tbtLcrfs Supper? 

A. It is required of them that 
would worthily partake of the 
Lotd'sSupper,that they examine 
themfelvesof theirKnowledge to 
difcern the Lord'sBody, of their 
Faith ro feed upon Hiin,of their 
Repentance,Love,8Cnew Obedi- 
eat and drink judgment to them- 

Wbat is Praytr ?. 

A Prayer is an offering up of 
our Defircs to God.for Things a- 
greeable to HisWillJn theName 
ofChrilt,with Confeflion of our 
Sins, and thankful Acknowledg- 
ment of his Mercies. 

Q. Wbat^ Raff httbGod given for 
our DireQwn in Praytr t 

A The wholeWord of God is 
of ufe to direct us in Prayer,but 
the fpecfal Rule of Direction is 
that form of Prayer whichChnfc 
taught His Difciples, commojily 
called, Thf Lord's Praytr. 

.Q. What doth ibeVrtfacf oftbt 
Lord's Trover teach as ? 

A. The Preface of the Lord's 
Prayet.whkh \$ t OurFatbcrv3bitb 
*rf //jtffdvr/veaclieth us tod raw 
Dear to God with ail holy Reve- 


to a FatliT,ab!e & ready to 
us,and that we fhouid pray \ 
and for others. 

QWhat do Defray for in tbtfirJlPeti 

A. InthefirftPetition,wMch 
Ktlloiocd bt thy Name, we pu 
4hat God would enable us and 
thers, to glorify Him in all t 
whereby lie mafceshiinfelfkn* 
and that He would difpofe 
things to His own Glory. 

QJi'bat do Tsepretyfor in tbs ind Psit t 

A. In the fscond Petltion,whicn 
i$ t Tby Kingdom come, we pray that 
Satan'sKingdcmmay bedcltroy- 
ed,thcKiflgdom of Grace may be 
ad vanced t ourTe;ves Mothers brit 
Into it, & kept in ir, 8c that the 
Kingdom of Glory may be haltned. 



Wlat do we fray for in tbc 
Petition ? 

In the thudpetition,which 
<y Will be dene onEarth at it is 
(tven^wG pray, that God by 
Gc ace, would make us able 8c 
ling,to know, obey & fubmit 
his Will in all things, as the 
els do in Heaven. 

at do we pray for inthtqtbPetidori 

a the fourth Petition, which 

vf us tbisDayour daily Bread, 

pray, that of God s free Gift 

wemay lece.veacompetemPorti- 

on of the good things of tbisLife, 

and enjoy his blefling with them. 

Q What do we pray for in fbff $tb Petition 

AIn the fifthPethioa,which is, 
And forgive us our Dfbt^ as we 
forgive our Dsbtonwe pr*y,that 


God, for Chrift's fake, would freely 
pardon all our fins, which we are 
rather encouraged to afk, becaufe 
by his grace we are enabled from the 
heart to forgive others. 

Q. What do we pray for in the tk petition? 

A. In the fixth petition, which is, 
And lead us not into temptation, but 
deliver us from evil, we pray, that 
God would either keep us from 
being tempted to fin, or fupport and 
deliver us when we are tempted. 
Q. What doth the conclusion of the 
Lord's prayer teach us ? 
A. The conclufion of the Lord's 
prayer, which is, For thine is the 
kingdom, and the power ', and the glory 
forever, Amen, teacheth us to make 
our encouragement in prayer from 
God only, and in our prayers to 

[Restoration of lacking text'] 


praife him, afcribing kingdom, pow- 
er and glory to him, and in tefti- 
mony of our defires, and afsurance 
to be heard, we fay, Amen. 

[Restoration of lacking text] 


Inside Binding of New England Primer, Boston : 1762 


T H E 

P rot eft ant Tutor, 

Youtli and Others, 

la the complsat Metfiod of 

Spelling, T3ie<tiLmg, and Writin 


DJfcbvering to tfiem the Notorious ERROKS. 
Paranabte DOCTRINES, and Cruel MASSA 
CRES of the Bloody PAPISTS. wEck Eng- 
land. may expet front a 

Pppifli SliCCESSOE 

To wHch is 

,A Timely MB M O R ! A L 
ro ALL 


Demonftrating t^e Certainty of a horrid and 
dimnable Poplfh PLOT now carrying on fa 
Great-Britain, in order to":DeRroy His Majefty 
King, GEORGE, and Royal Family, Introduce 
a Popith Succefibr ? and involve their Kingdoms 
in Blood and "Fire. 


The Moft Gracuws Declaration, 

Liberty of Confcience, 

PabliQied by Order ot theTUNG and COUNCIL 

-Q8 O N : Printed and Sold by E. Harris, af fhe Golden,' 
BoatV-Head So Ocatc Church S.lrec*. i76 








IN Clavel's Catalogue ( 1680) a title is given of " The English Tutor ; or, plain path-Way 
to the English Tongue. Printed by Ben Billingsley, and Sam. Crouch." The same 

list also records the " English Tutor, a spelling book," which possibly is the same work. 
The continuation of Clavel's list, under 1698, records the former work more fully as : " The 
English Tutor ; or the plain Path-way to the English Tongue, being a most plain and familiar 
Method for the teaching of Children to spell and read exactly, with Examples of most Words 
from one to six Syllables, both in whole words and divided $ the Rules how to spell them by 
way of Question and Answers ; together with Hymns and Proverbs prepared and methodized 
for the Use of English Schools. The fourth Edition, corrected. Printed for B. Billingsley 
at the Printing Press under the Royal Exchange, and S. Crouch at the corner of Pope's head 
Alley in Cornhill." Of neither of these " Tutors " can a copy be traced. 

As already noted in the introduction, John Dunton, writing in 1686, states that "Mr. 
Harris I think also Printed the Protestant Tutor, a Book not at all relish'd by the Popish 
Party, because it is the design of that little Book to bring up Children in an Aversion to 
Popery." No copy of this early edition is known. 

The American Antiquarian Society has a very imperfect copy of " The Protestant 
T [utor] / for / Childr [en.] / The Doner there on v [...]/ Health and Preserv 
[ . .] / the Gospel on Jesu [s C] hrist [-]/ To which is Added Verses made by Mr. 
John/Rogers a Martyr in Queen Maries Reign. / [Quotation from I Kings 18. 21, five 
lines.] / Boston in New-England, Printed by Samuel/Green, And are to be Sold by John 
Griffin / in Boston i6[8]5."/ This fragment consists of only the Rogers' Verses, without 
a cut, and a part of an unknown catechism. How far it otherwise resembled the later edi- 
tions of the " Protestant Tutor" cannot therefore be known, but the probabilities are that it 
was a pretty close reprint of the first edition of Harris's compilation. 

Under the pseudonym of "A Lover of Learning," with a preface dated 1687 and 
signed " R. W.," "The English Tutor : Or, Compendious School-Master: Teaching the 
English-Tongue," was issued with the imprint of "London: Printed and Sold by Tho. 
Leigh and Dan. Midwinter at the Rose and Crown in St. Paul's Church-Yard. 1701." 
The first edition of this was styled "The Compendious School-Master," and was printed at 
London in 1688 by Samuel Lowndes. It contains the "Capital letters," etc., the syllaba- 
rium, very much lengthened, the Lord's Prayer and Creed, the ten commandments, and a 
number of prayers and graces. Otherwise it differs radically from the New England Primer. 

Next in sequence follows the " New English Tutor," here reprinted, which was issued 
in Queen Anne's Reign (1702-14) if the poem in the rhymed alphabet is accepted as evi- 
dence. Though there is no imprint, it was obviously printed by Harris, or with his author- 
ity, for a comparison of the John Rogers print with that used in Harris's edition of the Prot- 
estant Tutor of 1716 (a reproduction of which forms the frontispiece of this volume) shows 
them to be from the same block. 

In 1715 Norris issued an edition of the Protestant Tutor, and a year later Harris issued 
another. These are the earliest editions extant, and while they differ slightly in contents, and 
are quite distinct from the "New English Tutor", they both contain the alphabet and 
syllabarium, the Lord's Prayer and Creed, the Rogers verses and print, with certain other 
matter used as well in the New England Primer and its prototypes. Copies of the two editions 
are in the British Museum, and the title page of the Harris edition is reproduced in this volume. 

In the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh there is a copy of " The English Tutor " 
printed at London in 1747, but the work bears no resemblance to either of Harris's publica- 
tions, being merely a school book. It is noticed here, therefore, only to avoid possible 

T H E. 


Enlarged ; 
For the more eafy 
attaining the True 
Reading of 


To which is added 
Milk for Babes 


Proverbs XXII. VI. Train up a 
Child in the way he Jkould go^ & rchex 
he js old he will not depart from if 

Cbap. XXIII. 17 1 8. Let not thy 
Heart en vy finners, but be, thott in the 
Fear of the Lord all the day long. 

For fardy there is an End, and thy 
Expectation ft all not be cut off". 

Epb. I. I. Children^ obey your Pa- 
rents in the Lord* for it is 

Of Serving GOD. 
T, Cod will have no time to 
It wefihd no cUy toferve hi 

2, Shall we haveji.? Days- in Seven 9 
and COD not One ? 

t Chron. 28, s>- My Son, 
the God of fhy "Father s^ 

baperfih Heart , and with & 
for tbe. Lord 


a b c d e f gjujklm 





AEIOU Y aeiony. 


d f g ji j k I m 
r f t v w x 2f 

Dauble Lftrtrf. 





Ualick double Letters 

reat Letters 


Eefy Syt/ablfj for Children, 

Ab cb 




ad ed 




sf ef 





ag eg 



aK ex 




al el 




am em 




au ea 




ap J? 




Tutor Cfrifotgefr 




















































































Words of One fyliabfet 
Are be Ear fifb 











Off Cf 
V ^J 





















































Tutor qfcnlargea. 7 

had knee meek nofe 

hand kneel mice not 

hat knight milk 

hath knit mock Oak 

he known mole of 

health moon odd 

heal lace more old 

fiowl lafs moth once 

hide laugh muft one 

hire land ought 

horns large Name our 

law naught cwn 

Ice leara nay ox 

'ight neck oyl 

Kid life nefb 

kind Iwe new Falm 

Kill long nigh pafs 

kjck nine path 

kifs Maid no peace 


J 45 





















* i t 


















































Tutor (titlarsto. 


dt off wo Syllables: 



Bold ly 


Con feat 


De cent 


En clofe 


Fa ther 






In fane 




La bour 


Mer cy 


Na ture 




Par don 


Quick ly 


Rera naat 


Sil rcr 





Words of Three SytUblcs 
Abufiog abuflng 

Be witch ing bewitching 
Confounded confounded 
Drun ken nels drunkennefs 
Erafmus erafmus 

Faculty faculty 

Cod It nels godlincfs 
Ho li nefs 
Im pu dent 
Ka leadar 
Li ber ty 
Memo ry 
Na tu ral 
O ver fight 
Pa nifh ment 

Re deem er 











Jk-W ViVVIll VI |V\lVVIiil%l 

Sa era ment facrament 


Tutor enlarged. 11 

Temporal temporal 

Vi clo ry victory 

Unity unity 

Wick ed nefs/ wickednete 

Youth fuUy youahfally 
Words of Four SylUblgs. 

Ac com pa ny accompany 

Be ne vo lence benevolence 

Ce re mo ny ceremony 

Difcon ten ted difcontented 

Ever laft ing everla fling 

Fidelity fidelity 

Glorifying glorifying 

Humility humility 

In fir mi ty infirmity 

La bo ri ous laborious 

Morta lity mortality 

No bi li ty nobility 

O be di cnce obedience 



Qua li ft ed 
BJ? demp ti on 
Sal Ya,ti on 
Temp ta ti on 
Un der 
Woa dei fully 

Words o 
Ad mtra'ti QJI 

JBe ne ft ci 4: 
Con fo ia ti on 











Ex honiaiti oa exhortation 

For ni ca tt oa fonnkatioa 

Ge ne ra ti on 


In vl ta/ti on . iavicaton 

La mentation 



di fea tf on meditation, 
con for mi ty nonconformity 

Op por to ni ty opportunity 

Pro tl on provocation 

Re pu ta ti on reputation 

Sa In ta tl on falutadoa 

Tri bii la ti on tribulation 

Visitation vi/Itation 

A Do mi na ti on Ma ni fefta t5 on 
Be ne fi ci al ly Ne go ci a ti on 
Con fi de ra ti onOc ca C o nal ly 
Ds ge nera lion Pro portidnabie 
E ja cu la to ry Qua li ft ct ti on 
For ti 6 ca ti on Re ge ne ra ti on 
Gio rifi cat! on Sig ni fi ca ti on 
y po cri ti cal ly Tra di 11,0 nal I y 
In ter pre ta u oisUn clrcnra dJioa 
ti ma 1 1 oa V ai ?er fa lj ty 


We toed all 

Tliy Lifetorcend 
This c04 attend. 


And after flay. 

A Dog will Bite 
A Thief at Night. 

An */<'$ Flight 
Is out of Sight. 

An idle Fool 
Is whipt at School* 


Tutor (Enlarged. 15 

Man's life doth pafs 

My Sort and Heart 
SHall never part. 

Sweet Jefu He 
Dy'd on a Tree. 


and Jefe the Throne 
To 4nn our Qjiecn 
of great ReoowH. 

docs hold 

Moon gives light 
la timt of Night 


in-time of Spring* 

It was the Tree 

That fav d his 
Royal Majefty- 

Pttef Denies 

Hh Lord and cryes 

Queen Etthcr came 
in Roysl State, 

To Cave the jews 
from difmal Fate. 

fotcbd doth mourn 

fot .herfirft-born, 

Samuel anoints 



Time cuts down all 
both great.and fraall 

V*ldf* beautious 


Made Z>Wfeefc 

his Life. 

Whales in the S, 
God's Voice obey, 

Xerxes the Great did 


And fo mult you 


Text fa forward flips 
Death Ibonelt nips. 

Ztfchetu be 

did climb the Tree, 

his Lord 

T ow the Child being emrtdwhit Let- 
ters and Sfttting, let him le*rn thtfc 
and fitch tike Sentences by Heart , 
whereby he WiJlbe b&thinftruRedinhis 
Dut^ and enceurag'd in Learning 

Tie Dutiful Child's Promtff. 

Will fear God, and Honour, the 
Queen. I will honour rny Fa* 
thcr and Mother. 

I will obey my Superiors. 

I will iubmit to my Elders. 

I will lovemy Friends. 

I will hate flo Man. 

1 will forgive mine Enemies, and 
pray to GOD for them. 

I will (as much as in me lyts) keep 
all God's Holy Commandments. 



I will Jearti my Catechifm. 
I will keep the Lord's Da> Holy 
I will reverence God's Sanctuary, 
for our GOD is a confuroing Fire. 

An Mf>lna&et ofLejfons for Youth. 

A Wife Son makes a Glad Father 
** but a foolifh Son is the Heavi- 
nefsof his Mother. 

BEtter b a little with the Fear of 
the Lord, than great Treafure 
and Trouble therewith, 

COme unto Chrift all ye that La- 
bour andare heavy laden, and 
he will give you reft. 

DO not the Abominable Thing, 
which I hate, faith the Lord. 
EXcept a Man be born again, he 
can't fee the Kingdom of GOD 




FOollihnefs is bound in tie Heart 
of a Child, bnt the Rod of Cor- 
re&ion will drive it far from him. 
not the Holy Spirit. 

HEarken unto me, all ye that for- 
get GOD, left I tear you in pie- 
ces and there be none to deliver. 

IT is good for me 10 draw near to 

KEep thy Heart with all diligence 
for out of it are the Iffues of 

Liar* fiiall have their part in the 
Lake which burneth witli Fire 
and Brimftone. 

M Any are the A<fliitions of the 
Righteous, but the Lordde- 

livers them out of them all 


NOw is the Accepted Time, now 
is the Day of Salvation. 
OU T of the Abundance of the 
Heart, the Mouth fpeaketh. 
PRay to thy Father which is in Se- 
cret, and thy Father which feeth 
in fecret, fhall reward thee openly. 

QU IT you like Mea be jfroDg, 
ftandfaft in the Faith. 
R Em ember thy Creator in the 
Days of thy Youth. 
SAlvation belongeth only unto the 

TRuft in God at all times, ye peo- 
ple , pour out your Hearts be 
fore him 

UPcn the Wicked Godfliall rain 
an horrible Temped, 



\/lK>eto the Wicked it fhall be ill 

with him, for che Reward of 

bis Hands /hall be given him. 

XT' Hort one another daily, while 

-A. it is called today, left any of 

you be hardened through the Deceit* 

(blnefs of Sin. 

YOung-nien, y.e nave overcome 
the wicked One. 
ZEal hath confumed me, becaufe 
thine Enemies have forgotten 
the Word of God. 

Choice Sentence? 

i. Praying will make thee leave 
sinning, or finning Praying. 

z. Our Weaknefs and I nabilities 
break not the Bonds of bur Duties. 

3. What we are afraid to fpeak 
oefore Men, we (ho'uld be afraid to 
faiflk before God. 


Tutor <nlarcreft 

Our Lor<Ts Prayer. 

OUr Father which art in Heaven, 
Hallowed be thy Name. TfiY 
Kingdom come Thy Will be done 
in Earth, as it is in Heaven : Give us 
this Day our daily Bread, 1 And for- 
give us our: Trefpafies, as we forgive 
themthatcrefpafs againft us, And 
lead us not into Temptation, but de- 
liver us from Evil. For thine is the 
Kingdom, the Power and theGiory, 
forever. Amm. 

The Crted 

J Believe in God, the Father Al- 
mighty, Maker, of Heaven and 
E arth, And in Jefus Chrift his only 
Son our Lord. Which was Concei- 
ved by the Holy Ghoft, Born of the 




Virgin A/*ry. Suffered under /W^ 
Jto*', was Crucified, Dead and Bur 
ried, He Defccnded into Hell. The 
Third Day he arofe again from ihe 
Dead. He Afcended up into Heaven, 
and fitteth on the right Hand of God 
the Father Almighty. From whence 
he Qiall come to jud&e the Quick and 
the Dead. 

I believe in theHoly Ghoft *, The 
Holy Catholtck Church, The Com- 
munion of Saints, The FoTgivenert 
of Sins, The Fcferrcctlon of the bo- 
dy, and ths Life everlafting, Amtn. 

Ten Commandments. Exod. XX 
/7 O Dfpale dtbWorifs, and f aid, 
V am ikt LorJtty Cod, w 




the Hotife of Bondage. 

I. Thou ftalt have ao other Gods 
before Me, 

II. Thon (halt not make unto thee 
any graven Image, nor any likeneis 
of any thing that is in Heaven above, 
or that is in the Earth beneath, or 
that is in the Water under the earth, 
thou (halt not bow down thy fejf to 
Them, norfenre them, for I the Lord 
Vhy God am a jealous God, Vifitio^ 

the Inquiries of the Fjthersujxurt he 
Children, to the Third and Fourth 

Generation of them that have roe and 
ftew IWercyuntoThomaads of them 
that Fovemeand keep my CoiDrao.'nd. 

HI. Thou Dialt not take rfic Name 
of the Lord thy God m vain, for the 


Lord witt not hold him guildefs that 
taketb his Name in vain. 

IV. Remember the Sabbath day to 
keep it holy, fix dajs fhalt thou la- 
bour, and do all thy Work, but the 
Seventh Day is the Sabath of the 
Lord cliy God, io it thou (halt not da 
any Work, thon nor thy Son nor thy 
Daughter, thy Msn-fervant, nor thy 
Maid-fervant, nor thv cattle, nor the 
Stranger that is within thy Gates/or 
in fix days the Lord made Heaven 
and Earth, the Sea, sod al] that in 
them is, and relted the feventh day, 
wherefore the LordbleflTed theSe- 
rccth Day and Hallowed it. 

V. Honour thy Father and Mother 
that thy Days may belongontfce 
land which the Lord thy God givecfc 



VI. Thou fhalt do no Murder. 

VII. Tfaob fljalt not commit Adul- 

VIII. Thou fhalt not fteal. 

IX. Thots fhalt not bsarfalfe wit* 
nefs againft thy Neighbour. 

X. Thou foaitbot Co?et thy neigh- 
bour's Houfe, Thou fhalt nor Covet 
thy Neighbour's Wife, nor his Man- 
iervant, nor Ms Maid-fervant, nor 
his Ox, nor his Afs, nor any thine: 
rhat is thy Neighbour's. 

Wn&wbicb 1 cammwet 
m$ DtyfuiH be fa thy Heart. 


R. John Rogers Mimfter 
of the Gofpel in LotiJov, 
was the Firft Martyr in Queen 
Af^r/s Reign, and was burnt in 
Smtthfcld. February the itfhi 
1554. His Wifej with Nine 
fmall Children, and one at her 
Breaft, follow'd him to the Stake, 
with which forrowful Sight, he 
was not in the Jeaft daunted,, but 
with wonderful Patience, Dyed 
couragioufiy for tbe Gofpel of 
Jefus Chriil, 

Some few Days before his 
Death, he Writ the following 
Exhortation to his Children. 



Ehildrentc* my words 
whom God bath dearly bought, 
up his Laws within your Hearts,' 
aud Print them 'in your Thoughts. 
I leave yon here a little "Book, 

for you to look upon, 
That you insy fee your Fathers Face, 
when he is Dead and gone. 


Who for the hope of heavenly things 3 

white I did here remain, 
Gave om all rny GoJden Years, 

to Prifon and to Pain. 
Where I among my Iron Bands 

cnclofed in the dark, 
Not many Days before my Death 

I di&compofe this Work. 
And for Example to your Youth, 

To whom I wifh all good, 
I fend you here God's perfeft Truth, 

and feal it with my Blood. 
To yoU my Heirs of tarthly things, 

which 1 do leave behind, 
That yoa may read and underftandj 

and beat it in your Mind. 
That as you have been Heirs of that 

which once fhatl yvear away. 
You a If o may pofTefe that part, 

which ntver (hall decay, 



Tutor JMarffeb. at 

Keep always God before your Eyes 

With all your whole Intent, 
Commit no Sin in any wife 

keep his commandement. 
Abhor that arrant Whore of Rome 

and all her Blafphemies j 
And drink not of her curled cup. 

obey not her decrees. 
Give honour to your Mother dear 

remember well her pain, 
And recompence-her in her Aee, 

With the like Love again. 
Be always ready for her help, 

and let her not decay, 
Remcinber Well your Father, All 

which ftiould have bee^ your fhv 

Give of your Portion to the Poor 

as Riches do arife, 

Arjd from the needy, naked Soul 
turn not ay/ay your Eves 



ror he that doth not hear the cry 

of tho(e that fland in ncccf, 
Shall ciy himfdf and not be heard; 

when he dors hope toTpeed. 
Jf God balh given you Increafe, 

and blcfled well yoyr {lore, 
Remember you arc put in trutt, 

and ftiould relieve the poor. 
Be ware of foul and filthy Lulls, 

let fucb things h'atfe no place, 
Keep clean your Vcfiels in the Lordf, 

that He may you embrace. 
Ye are the Temples of the Lord, 

for yc are deafly bought, 
And thofe that do defile the fame 

will furely come to nought. 
Be nevt proud by any means, 

build not thy houk ioo high, 
But always have before your Eyes, 

tbat you are torn to die 



Tutor 3rtfat?]jetr. 33 
Defraod not him that hired is, 

your Labour to fuflurn , 
Eat pay him foil without delay, 

his Wages for his pain. 
And as you would another Man 

againft you fhould proceed, 
Do you the fame ro them again, 

when they do fUnd in need. 
Impart your Portion to the Poor, 

in Money and in Mat, 
AnJ. fold the feeble, fainting Soul 

of that which you do ear. 
Ash counfcl always of the Wife, 

give car onto the end, 
And ne'er refute the fweet Rebate 

oF him that is thy Friend. 
Be.atways thankful to the Lord. 

with Prayer and with Praife, 
Begging of him to blete your Work, 

and to direct your Ways 
C 2 



Seek fuft. 1 fay, the living God, 

and always biro adore ; 
And then befure (hat he will blefs 

your Basket, and your Store : 
And 1 befeecb Almighty God 

tYeplcnifh you wiUi Grace, 
That 1 may meet you in the Heav'ns, 

and fee you Face to Face. 
And though the Fire my Body burns, 

contrary to ray kind,- 
That 1 cannot eri/oy your Love 

according to my mmd ; 
Yet do 1 hope, that when the Heav'ns 

(hall vamfh.ltke-a ScrowJ, 
J (hall you fee in perfect ihape, 

in Body and in Soul. 
And that Lmiy enjoy your Love, 

and yoU en;oy the Land, 
(do befeech the living Lord, 

to hold you in bis Hand. 



Tutor Jntacgtzr. 35 

Though tiere my Body be adjudg'd 

in (laming Fire to fry, 
My Soul, I croft, will rtrait afccnd 

to live with God on high. 
What tho' this Carcafs (mart awhile, 

what though this Life decay, 
My Soul, I hope, will be with God, 

and live with him for aye* 
I know I am a Sinner born 

from the Original, 
And that I do deferve to dte^ 

by our Fore fathers Fall : 
And by our Saviour's preciousBfood, 

which on the Crofs was fpliL 
Who freely ohVd up fcis Life, 

to fave our Soblsfrotn guilt ; 
I hope Redemption 1 (ball have* 

artd all that in Wrrt truft, 
When I hall fee him Face to Face, 
live among the Juft. 


"Why then fhould I fear Death's grim 

fince Chrift for me did die ? (look, 
For King and Ctjar, Rich and Poor, 

the force of Death -miift try. 
When I am chained to the Stake, 

and Faggots girt me ronnd, 
Thenpny the 1 ord, ray Soul infte^^a 

ma^ be with Glory crown'd. 
Cotne,welcomeDeatf) ? the end of Fears, 

1 am prepar'd to die. 
Thofe earthly Flames will fend my Soul 

op to the Lord on high. 
Farewell, my Children, to the World, 

where you rauft yet rcraa n, 
The Lord ol Hotts be your defence 

tiQ \^t do meet again. 
Parewel, -my true and Icvlng Wife, 

my Children, and my Friends. 
I hope in Heav'n to fee you: aU, 

when all things have their Ends. 


inror gfnargt* 37 
K you go'on tofewe the Lcra, 

35 you have now begun, 
You (hall walk fafely all your dayp, 

until your Life be done* 
God grant you fo to end your Day?, 

as he Ihall think it bed ; 
That I may meet you in the Heav'ns, 

where I do bope to reft. 

Tlte ?r#yer of King Edward 

LOrd God, deliver me oat of this mife 
rable and wretched Life, take me 
amongthyCHofei^howbeit notmy Will, 
but thy Will be done. Lord, Icoramftmy- 
Spirit to thee : O Lord, then kfiowefthoi*- 
happy it were for me to be with thee > yef 
for chy Chofcn's fake, if it be ihy Will, 
fend me Life and Health that 1 may traly 
fervethee. Diary Lord blefs^hy People, 
and faveNthnre Inheritance O Lord God 
fave thy chofen People of 'England . O my 
Loid God, defend this Realm fromPapiflry, 



3$ Ct* JlrtD 

and maintain thy tone Religion, fhat I 2nd 
thy People may praife thy hpljr Name 

And therewithal he laid, I am faint, 
Lord have roerey apon me,, and take my. 
Spirit. And- fo he yielded op to God his 

J A/4 4 r a /"" *". 

BLeffed ts the Man that walketh not 
in tbe cooufel of the Ungodly, nor 
flandetbinthtfway of Sinners, ndrfit- 
ceth in the Sea: of the Scornful. 

2. Bur his Delight is in the Law of 
the Lord, and in bis Law doth he me- 
ditafe Day and Night.' 

a. And he (hall be lite a Tree plan- 

,ted by the Riversof Waters, thatbrine- 

cth f3rth his Fruit in his Seafon, his. 

Leaf alfo fball not wither, and what- 

focver he doth, it (hail profper. 

4 TheUngodty are not (o, butare 
tke the Cbiff, which the Wind dnvcth 

f ~KAre. 

away. > 


The* Preftfatt df t&9 

From the Ne-iv England Primer. Boston : J. White, n. d. 


Tutor JnlarffeU. 39 

5. Therefore the Uugodiy ftall not 
ffand in the Judgment, nor Sinners iu 
the Congregation of the Righteous. 

6. For the Lord Knowetb the way 
of the Righteous. .But the way of the 
Ungodly {hall paifh. 

/I frayer for ChiUrtn in the Morning. 
A/f O(\ migthy and gracious God, L 
- 1 * humbly thank thee for all thy. 
Mercies, for the good Reft Ihou haft 
been pleafed to vouchfafe unto me this 
Night paR. I pray thce continue thy 
Favour unto me \ forgive roe my Sins, 
guide me this day in thy Fear, and to before thef, and under thy Pro- 
re dion. as it becomes thy Child, for 
Chrift Jcfus his fake. Atnen* 

A Prayer at Nigbt. 
T Humbly thank thee, O God, my Io- 
A ving Father in Jefus Cbrift, for thy 
mercifol guiding and keeping me this 




Day* I pray tlice forgive me all my 
Sins therein committed, and be with 
me this Night, teep me in tiie Anns-of 
thy tove and Fear, that I nay re(t un- 
derttefhadowofthy Wings, my mer- 
ciful God in Jefus Chrift. sJrit n. 
A BUffing before Mtat. 

SAnflify, O lord, unto me, tse ufe 
of thcfe thy Creatures, of which, 
by my Sins, I have made my fclf un- 
worthy, make me a fober and thankful 
Partaker of tliem, grant that the end 
of my eating and drinking may be to 
be better inablfrd to fcrve thee, in mj 
feversl Relations, thro' Jeius Cbriii 

~d.Thattkfgiving afar Meat. 
TOLefled be thy Name, O Lord, for 
** all thy Mercie^ for the comforta- 
ble rcfre f l?ing{h'"u hdft now vouchfafed 
ine. Feed my Soul I befccch thfe 
with the Bread of Life, and make me 



Tutor Jiilargrti*' 41 

careful to evidence Che TYuth of my 
Thankfulmfs in an Obedience to thy 
hoty Will. Grant free paflase to the 
Gotpel, and difappomtall its Enemies, 
for the fcke of Jefus Chrifl, Amen, 
Children! Duty to their Parents. 
T? OR God commanded, faying, Ho 
A nour thy Father and Mother, and 
he that curleth Father or Mother, ict 
him die tb? Death, AJetib* 15.4, 

Children obey yew Parents in the 
Lord, for this is right, Eph. 6. i. 

Honour thy Father and thy Mather, 
(which is the firit Commandment with 
Promifc r ) thit it may be well with thee, 
acd thou mayft Jive long on the Earth. 

Pw. 30. 17. The Eye that mock- 
eth at thcf ather t and defpifeth to obey 
Jus Mother, the Ravens of the Valley 
in? II pick ic cut* and the young Hades 
cat it. 


Cfea?- 23. 22. Hearken unto 
Father that begat thee ? and defpifc not 
thy Mather when fhe is old. 

afcr 1 5. iS, 19. Father I have Ga- 
ncd agdinfi Heaven, ;rod before thee, 
I am no more worthy co be called thy 

Gsn. 37. 2. Aod ^/rpfc brousht ua- 

to him theit evil Report. 

Hsb. 12. 9. Furthermore we have bad 
Fathee* of our Fiefh, which correO^d 
us. and we ^ve Cbem Reverence, t Savt. 
21. 3 Let my Father and Mother, I 
pray thee, corns forth and be with you 
till I know what God will do for one. 

L#ks i. ?i. And he went down 
with them, and came to N*x#nW> 
and was fubje& unto them. 

Prw. 20. 20. Whofp cfietft.fas 
Fate or his Mother, 
be pat outira obfeaie 


Tutor 3ttterffefc. 43 

Parents Duty to Children. 
T^Hcfc Words which I commanded 
- 1 thee this Day flial) be in thy 
Heart. Dent . 6. 6. And ttoou fhaJt teach 
them diligently unto thy Children, 
and (halt talk of them when tbou fit- 
reft in thy Hoafr, and when tnou lieft 
down, and when thou rifeft up. 

Come, ye Children, and hearken 
umo me, and 1 will teach you the fear 
of the Lord. 

Hear, O yc Children, (he 
on of a Faiher, and girt car to 
Underftandiog, Prov. 4. r. 

For I nive you a good Doclrine, 
therefore for&kc ye not my Liw. 

Hear iny Son, and r ceive my words, 
and the yeirs of thy life hallbe many* 
Tell you your Children, and let your 
Children ftm to theur Children, to 
another Generation, Jo<l J. 3. 




You Faihc;rs provoke not yourChilt 
tlrtn to Wrath, but bring them up in 
the Inflru&ion and Information olcbe 
Lotd. Eph. 6. 4, 

Chaften thy Son while there is hope, 
and lt not thy Soul fparc for his cry- 
ing. If you which are evil can give to 
ycur Cliildren good Gifts, how much 
more (hall your Father, which is in 
Heaven, give good things to them that 
a^k biro ? //tr ifc. 7. 

The Duty of young Folks. 
TyH-rewithal fha!) a Young Mar 
cfcanfe his way : by taking heed 
thereunto, according to thy Word, 

Rcjoycc,O Yoongman, in thy Youthj 
and let thy heart chcar thec in the dayj 
of thy Youth, and in the flght of thin* 
.Eyes., but know, that for all thefe things 
Got wilt bring thee to judgment) EC 1 1.9. 
*Tit,2.6 Exhort Young-men that .they 
Ixj Sober-minded. 


Tutor 3uIar(jeB. 45 

2 Pet. 5. 5. Likewife ye Younger, 
fubmit youritlves to the Elder, and 
fubimt yourfelves one to another, deck 
yourfch'cs inwardly with Holincfs of 
Mind, for God refifteth the proud, 
and giveth Grace to the humble. 

Tit. 2, 4. Let the cider Women m- 
Rrud the younger Women to be fobcr- 
minded,that ihey lovcthtirHtisbinds, 
that they love their Children, that they 
he temperate, charts, keeping at home, 
good, obedient to their Hu&and?, that 
the word of God be not tvil fpoken of. 

i John 2. 14. 1 have written to you, 
Young men, becaufe ye are ftrong, and 
the word of God abideth in you, and 
ye bavc overcome rhc wicked one. 

Thou fiiak rife up before the hoary 
Head, and honour the Peifon of the 
Old man. 

2 Tim 


2 Tin. $. f$. Know the Scriptures 
even from thy Childhood. 

The Duty of Servant/. 
Pjdm AS the Eyes of Servants look 
X2J.2/ 1 - unto the Hands of their 
Matters, and* as the Eyes of a Maiden 
unto the Hand of ber Mlftrefs, fo our 
Eyes wait upon the Lord. 

Eyb. 6.5, Servants be obedient 
onto them that are your Mafters accor- 
ding to the Fefli, wrth Pear and trem- 
bling, in (inglenefs of your Hearts, as 
unto Chrift 

k Not with Eys fervicc, as Man-piled - 
frs,-but as the Servants of Chrift, 
doing the Will of G O D from the 

7 With good Will, doing Service 
as to the Lord, and not to Men. 

i 71m. 6. f. Let as many Servants 
as are under the Yofce, count their 




own MatfeK worthy of aH Honour, 
that the Name of Cod and his Doc- 
trine be jiot blafphemed, 

Th. z. 9 Exhort Servants to be o- 
bed ient unto their own Matters, and 
to pleafc them well in all things, ~noc 
anfwering again. 

Jo. Not Purfoming, but (hewing 

g i? n rity > thar the< y ^/ adorn 
the Doctrine of God our Saviour in All 

i Pet. 2. 18 Servants be fub;*e$tO 
your Marten, with all Fear, notonly 
to the good and gentle, but alfo to the 

The Duty of Maptn. 
IF any provide not for his own, and 
efpccially thofe of his own Houfe, 
he hath denied tf* Faith, and is worfe 
than an Infidel. 

|.j, A vertuous Woman 
E> rifefh 


tjfcth while it is yet Night, and giv- 
<th Meat unto her HoufholJ, and a 
Portion to her Maids, 

Jcfaa 24. i. I and my Houfc will, 
ierve the Lord. 

Epb. 6. 9. Ye Matters, put away 
thrcatniug, knowing that }cur Ma- 
tlet allo is in Heaven, neither is there 
of Per few wtth him. 

Milk for Babes, drAtrn OKI of 
the Pveafts of both Teftantents for 
their Swlt Noun foment. By John 
Cotton, B. D. 

QucHion J& 'H*t h^:h Cod done for 

dnfmr. God hoth made me, hi 
keeps nie, and he can fave me. 

CL, Who it GOD * 

4. G O D is a Spirit of Himfctf, 
and for Hjiniclf. Q. Hat 


f, u Tutor . 47 

VJ. * riow many Gtdt \> e Mfc f 

A "^, in Three 

Ho did God make you. ? 


A. No : My firft Parents finned, 
and I in them. 

oj-/r <? Sinner > 

. A. I was conceived in Sin, and born 
J/i Iniquity. 

Q., W/M> //r Birth-Sin .' 
A. ^w s Sm imputed unto mc.and 
'S, ^ Nature dvveilmg in me. 
-1 What isjeur corrupt Nature ? 

m . 

gwce, bent unto Sin, and only unto 
^m, and that continually 
Q^VW/s^? . 



A. Sm is theTranfgrffion of f be Law. 

Q. Horn many Commandments of the 
LM be there ' 

A, Ten. 

Q What if tkefrfl Commandment ? 

A. Thou fhalt have no other Gods 
before Me. 

Q Whet u the meaning of this Com- 
mandment ? 

A. That we fhould worfhip the on- 
ly true God, and no other befide him- 

Q. What it tbt fecond Commandment ? 

A. Thou (hale not make to thy felf 
any graven Image, &e. 

Q. What is the meaning of this Com- 
mandment ? 

A. That we (feouldwodni p the on- 
ly true God, with true Worihp, fuch 
as he hath ordained, not foch as Mao 
hath invenud. 

Q. What it the third Commandmenti 

A The 


Tutor 3ntatgea. 53 

A. Thou fli-It not take tl Name of 
the Lord thy God in vain, <3^c 

Q What is here meant by the Name 
of God? 

A. God himfc!f,and the good things 
of God, whereby he is known as a Man 
by Ms Name, and his Attributes. 
WorfHp, Word and Works, 

B Q. lf^4f w if not to fake his Name 
in Vain ? 

A. To make ufe of God, and the 
good things of Goi, to his Glory and 
our own good, not vainly, unrevercnt- 
ly, not unj)rofitabiy. 

Q What is the fourth Commandment* 

A. Remember that thou keeo holv 
the Sabbath-Day. 

Q. What is the meaning of this Com- 
mandment ? 

A.Thatwe/Ik>uld reft from labour, 
and much more frcm PJay on tli? Lord's 




Day, that we may draw nigh to God 
in Holy Duties. 

Q. What is the fifth Commandment? 

A. Honour thy father and thy Mother 

that thy Days may be long in the Land 

which the Lord thy God giveth thee. 

Q. Who are here meant ly Father or 
Mother * 

A All our Superiors, whether in Fami- 
ly.School, Church,or Commonwealth, 

Q. WhAt Is the Honeur due to them / 

A. Rcvercncf,Obedience,and (when 
1 am able) Recompence: 

Q, What MtbefixthConanAndmcnti 

A. Thou (hah do no Murder. 

Q. Whs it the meaning of ibis Com- 
mandment i 

A That we (hould not (horten the 
Life or Health of our felves or others, 
but preferve both. 

Q. What is the ftvtnih Commandment? 

A. Thoa 


Tutor 3nlarc&. 51 

A, Thou (halt not commit Adultery. 

Q. What ftf the Sin here forbidden ? 

A. To defile our felves, or others, 
wi'th unclean Lulls. 

Q. What 14 the Duly here commanded? 

A. Chaftityj to poffefs our Ve/Tds 
in Holi'nefs and Honour. 

Q What if the eighth Commandment? 

A Thou (halt not Steal. 

Q What u the Stealth here forlidden ? 

A. To take away another Mans goods 

without hi* leave, or to fpe ncl our otvn 

withou benefit to our felves or others. 

Q. Whtt if the Dtrty here commanded* 

A. To get our Goods honefr!y,tokeep 

them fafely,and to fpend them thriftily 

Q^ Whit tithe ninlh Commandment f 

A. Thou (halt not bear falfe Wit- 
nefs again (I ihy Neighbour. 

CX What if fhe Sin here forbidden f 

A. To Lye falsely, to tMnk or fpcak 
untruly of our felves or others, O 


Q. Whdt is t be Duty here required ? 
A. Trath aud Rihbfnlnefs. 
Q. What U the tenth CommaKd/nent ? 
A. Tlion flialt not covet, We. 
Q. What w theCovetinghtre forbidden ? 
A. Lu/t afcer the things of other Mens 
and want of Contentment of ourown. 
Qftaveyqu, kept thefe Commandments? 
A^No : I and all Men are Sinners. 
Q_ What is the Wagis of Sin ? 
A. Death and Damnation. 
Q. lE6n> look you then to befaved ? 
A. Only by Jefus Chrift. 
Q. Who it Je'fns Chrifl ? . 
A. The eternal Son of Go4 t wlio; 
for our lake?, bfc-ime Man, that he 
might redeem and lave us. 
Q^ H<w dcthGjrifl redeem and fave te# 
A By hisrightcousiiieandbitterdeath 
and glorious refurndion to Life again. 
( tim <to we come to have a part 


1 92 

Tutor ^nlar&eO, 57 

piip'9itbCkrijl* bis Death 
and Rtfurrcflion I 

A. By the Power of Ms Word and 
Spirit, which brings us to Chrift, and 
Jteeps us in him. 

A. The Holy Scripture of the Pro- 
pliets and Apoftfes, the Old and New 
Tcihmcnt, the Law and Gofpel. 

Q. How doth the Mini fry ofthgLaw 
bring you towards Chritt f 

A. By bringing me to know my Sin, 
and the wrath of God agiinft me for it. 

O . Whut are you thereby the nearer to 
Cknfl ? 

A. So I come to feel my curfcd E 
ftate, and need of a Saviour. 

Q. How doth the Miniftry of the GoJ- 
pel help you in this turfed Effate ? 

A. By humbling me yet more, ^ad 
then raifing me out of this.Effate. 

O Hm 


Q., How dotk the M'mRry of the CoJ- 
pel hnmble you yet more and more ? 

A. By revealing the Grace of our 
lord Jetus in dying to lave Sinners, 
and yet convincing me of my Sin, in 
not believing on him, and of my ut- 
jer Iflfiiffioiciicy to come to him, and 
fo I f el my felf utterly loft. 

Q. & 9 jf<l<>th the Mimftry of the Cof- 
yel raifeym out of this loft Eft aft, to 
come tfnto Ckyift ? 

A. By teaching me the Value ana 
Virtue of the Death of Chr'ft,and the 
Riches of his Grace to loft Smners, 
by revealing the Promite r f Grace ro 
iuch, and by MVmftring the Spirit of 
Grace to apply Chrift.and his Promife 
of Grace onto my felf,and to keep me 
in him. 

Q. Ho* doth the Spirit of Gttce apply 
Cbrifl.and his Prowifes of Grace wiroyo* 
u In him f A. By 


Tutor Jjnlato;^ 55 

A. By getting in me Faith to re* 
ceive him j Prayer to call upon him ? 
Repentance to mourn after him ; and 
TUW Obedience to ferve him. 

Q What if Faith * 

A. Faith is the Grace, of the Spirif, 
whereby I deny my felf,and believe oa 
Chrift for Righreoufaefs and Salvation 

Q.. \Vh t n is Prayer ? 

A. It is a'c tiling upon God in the 
Name of Chrilt, by the help of the Ho- 
lyGkoft, according to the Will of God. 

Q What if Repentance * 

A. Repentance is a Grace of the Spi- 
rit, whereby I loath my Sins, and my 
lelf' for them, and confefs them before 
the Lord, and mourn after Chrift fer 
the Pardon of them, and for Grace to 
ferre him in Newnefs of Life. 

Q- What is Newnefsof Ltfe t or 
Obedience / 



A. Newiiefs of Life is a Grace of the 
Spirit, whereby I forfake my former 
Lufts and vain Company,and walk be- 
fore the Lord in the fight of his Word, 
arid in the Communion o-f Saints. 

Q.- What M the Communion of Saints ? 

A It is the Fellowship of the Church 
in the Biddings of the Covenant of 
Grace, and the Seals thereof. 

Q. Wkal is the Church ? 

A- It is a Congregation of Saints, 
join'd together in the bond of theCovc- 
nant,to worfliip the Lord, and to edify 
one another in all his holy Ordinances. 

Q. What is the Bond of the Covenant 
fy which the Church if join d together ? 

A, It is rhe Profeflion of that Cove- 
nant which God hath made with his 
faithful People, to be a God unto 
them and to their Seed. 

CL What doth the Lord bind his People 
to In this Covenant ? 


Tutor 3Jnlare;*a. 6r 

A To gtvrup ihejmfcires and their 
Srcd, hrft to the I ord, to be his People 
and t ten to the Elders and Brethren o 
theCWA, to fet forward the Worship 
of CW, and their animal Edification! 

Q. Ho* & they rive up themfelvtrl 
and their Seed to the Lord ? 

A j By receiving, through Faith, the 
tord, and his Covenant totbeiifelycs 
and to their Seed^nd accordingly v/a Ik- 
ing themfelves, and training np their 
Cluldren in the Ways of the Covenant 

Q, Hwdotheyttoe uo tbentfehes, 
and their Seed, to tee Eiders ^d 3re- 
tkren of the Church ? 

A. By Confeffion of their Sins, and 
Profeffion of theh: Faith, and oF their 
Subici^ion to the Gofpel of Chrift 
and fo they and their Seed are recci^d 
into the Feliow/hip of the ,Church t 
and the Seals thereof. 


Q. Wita/ art the Seals eft he GttMAM 
w in the Days of tkt Gofptl i 
A. Baptiim and the Lord's-Supper, 
Q. What is done for in Eaftifm f 
A. In Baptiftn, th wafhing with 
Water, is a Sign and S1 of my wafli- 
ing in the Blood and Spirit of Chritf, 
and thereby of my ingrafting into 
Cbrift, of the pardon and cJeanfing 
of my Sins, of my /ifing up out ot 
Affliaicn, and alib my Rcmrredion 
from the Dead at the Jaft Day. 
Q.U^vrr is done for yon in theL<>rdiSnppcr* 
A, In the Lord's Supper, the receiv- 
ing of the Bread brokcn,and the, Wine 
poured out, js a Sign and Seal of my 
tcceivingthc Communion of the Body 
of Chrift broken for me, and of his 
BJocd fhed f r me, and thereby of my 
growth in Chriit, and the pardon and 
healing c{ my Sin?, and the Fellowflu'p 




of his Spirit, of my Hrcngtftnine and 
quickning in Grace, and of my fitting' 
together with Chrift on his Throne of 
Glory, at the la(t Judgment. 

Q. what U the Refitrr&fonfrtm the 
Dctdpbich vtMjeafj, up to you in lUpriJm 

A, When Chrift foal! come to his 
!aft Judgment, all that are in their 
Graves /nail rife again, both the Tuft 
and the Unjuft. 

Q. Wh* is the l*p Judgment vkicb is 
fcal'd Kf to you in the Lord's Suffer t 

A. At the Inft Day we (hall appear 
before the Judgment Seat of ChrilK to 
give an account of our Works, and to 
receive our Reward according to them 

Q What is th* Reward tfatfatttkt* 

ve given $ 

A. The Righteous fliall go into Life 
eternal, and (he Wicked fljall I* caft 
into ey.rlaft ing Fire, with the Devil 
and his Anls. Cn 


is before tt>tne Zye. 
tk OD art ior o <iy 
t^ way come before; 
Tbtrtf fl)g(t,ehyty me 'M'witf Plffifure more ; 
Wbznthcu wibtXeavetKsWorld entail behind, 
Tbbewtlh WonrK,in fome Churcbt yard confind t 
^Ind.asfr<mallthyfritndfgTim death fa 
SoGotLwillfindtfiee whenthe. tT 


Tutor ImaraeO. 


, TT On Judgment 

yy Hen at- the Throne of God 

and af thoSrtfwd, fo 

T/' S * * 

* Cr *** ur( >> fa > 




On Heaven. 

I 7 rftav'n abevt, vfhert ri$ttota Swh 
Lrernal Praiftt to their bttrv'nlj Kinr y 
Tbirt It no fiar, no Care, no- eauft ef/trife, 
Nr Want mr ftttntft to dtprive (fLife- 
Wetuxiout divefrhts abtvt a future flatt f 
Sttt t \iert ttxy find it v/th * Joj cempleat. 
rfarhigtMft Pulht of Bit ft lohofi w<t)i tirt ryrt, 
Thii and ttn thoitfand timu were dltjt it Heaven 



On __.. 

J tia'Mmtyty't 

, ,n 

tl ttn 

timtj mm VXT& is Bttl 



, Chapter XII. 

Befeech you, therefore, Brethren, by 
the Mercies of God, that ye prefer* 
your Bodies a living Sacrifice, holy, 
acceptable unto God, which is your 
reafonable Service. 

2. And be not conformed to this 
World, but be ye transformed by tne 
renewing of your Mind, that ye may 

prove what is that good, and accepta- 
We, andperfeaWillofGod 

3, For I fay, through the Grace g - 
ven unto roe, -to every Man that is 
among you, not to think of himldl 
more highly than he ought to think, 
but to think foberly, according as 
God hath dealt to every Man the mta- 
fure of Faith. ~ 


Tutor 3Jn!argeb. 51 

4. For as we have man^ Mcm.bers 
in one Body, and all Members 'have 
net the fame Office. 

5. So we being many, are one Body 
in Chritt, and every one Member t one 
of another* 

6. Having then Gifts differing, ac- 
cording to the Grace that is given t(5 
us, whether Prophecy, let as Prophe- 
cy according to the Proportion cf 

7. Or Minifiry, let us wait on our 
Mimfaing, or he that teacheth on 

8. Or he that exhofteth, on Exhor- 
tation. .He that giveth, Jet him do it 
with Simplicity, he that rulctb with 
Diligence, he that fiiewcth Mercy with 

9. Let Love be without Dilfimulaii- 
on ^ abhor that which is evil, cleave 
to that which is good. i o. Be 


' 10. Be kindly affeaionatcd one to 
another, with brotherly Love, in Ho- 
nour preferring one another. 

1 1. Not flothful in. Bufmefs, fervent 
InSpirit, fearing the Lord. 

12. Rtjoycing in Hope, patient m 
Tribulation, continuing iniunt in 

Prayer. .. t 

I*, pifhibuting to the ritcemty of 

Saints, given to Hofpitality. 

14. Blefs them which perfccute you, 
Blcfs, andCurfenot. 

!>. Reloyce with them that do rc- 
joyce, and weep with them that weep 

16. Be of thcfamcmmd onetowards 
another : Mind not high things, but 
condefccnd to Men of low Eftatf i CC 
not wife m your own Conceits. 

17. Reco.mpence to no Man cviHof 
evil. Provide things honsa mthc light 
gf all Men. jg , f 


Tutor . 53 

1 8. If it be pofuble, as much as U 
eth ia you, Jive peaceably with all 

19, Dearly Beloved, avenge not 
your felvcs ; but rather give place uii 
to wrath, for it is written, Vengeance 
is mine, I will repay, faith the Lord. 
20. Therefore, if thine Enemy him. 
g*r feed him, if he thirft, aive him 


i ri T tS- In fo doin ^ tho &lt heap 
Coals of Fite on his Head. 

21. Be not overcome of eviL but 
overcome evil with good. 

The Ftrfi Chapter of John. 
N the . Begtnning was the Word, 


wifh G . 

j. All 



3 3. Afl things were made by him, 
and without him was not any thing 
made that was made. 

4. in him was Life, and the Luc 
was the Light of Man., 

5. And the Light fluneth in Dark- 
pels, and the Darknefs comprehended 

it not, 

6. There was a Man lent from uod, 
whofe Name was John. 

7. The fame came for a witness ; to 
beat witnefs of the Light, that all Men 
throufch him might believe 

' 8. He was not that Light, but was 
fent to bear Witoefs of that Light. t 

o. That was the true Light which 
iigjtcth every Man that cometh into 

-ia Hewas in the World, and the 
World was made by him, and tns 
W orld knew him net. H 


' ' 

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American Primer. Boston: 



n. He came unto his own, and fits 
own received him not, 

12. But as radny as received him. 
to them gave he power to become the 
SODS of God even to them that be- 
lieve on his Name. 

13. Which were born not of Blood, 
nor of the will cftheFldh, nor of foe 
will of Man. but of God. 

14. Aad the Word was made FJefh, 
and dwelt among us (and we beheld 
ius Glory, the Glory u of the only be- 

gotten of the Father) full of Grace and 

if, John, bare witnefe of him, and 
oyed, faying, This was he cf whom I 
y*5 ^ /hat comcth after roe. is pre- 
wrcd before me, for he was before 


and Once for Grace : 

17. For 


17, For the Law was given by Mb- 
fts, but Grace and Troth came by Je- 
fus Chrift. 

18. No man hath fccn God at any 
time, the only begotten Son, which is 
in the Bofom of the Father, he hath 
declared him, 

47. Jefus favv NatJiAniel coming to 
him, and faith of him, Behold an If- 
rAelilt indeed, in whom is no guile. 

48. NathAnid faith unto him, 
Whence knoweft thou me ? Jefusfaid 
unto him, Before that Philip called 
thee, when thou wcrt under the Fte- 
tree, I fa w thee. 

4p, Nathaniel anfwcred and faid 
onto him, Rabbi, thpu art the Son of 
God, thou ait the King of IfraeJ. 

53. Jefus anfwercd and faid unto 
hhn, Becaufe I faid unto thee, J faw 
thee under the Fig-tree, believed 

thou ! 


Tutor Jniarart, 57 
tbotj ! Thou flnlt fa greater things 
than thefe, 

51. And he faid unto him, verily 
Tcrify, I fay unto you, hereafter you 
fliaJl lee Heaven open, and the Angels 
of Ged afccnding and descending upon 
the Son of Man. 

Ckriftan Obfervalions. 

he daily draw rear to G&d in 
/oJemn Prayer and Supplication 
for his Grace, and lift Up his Heart to 
him in Thaokfgiving for Mercies re- 

That he keep a narrow Watch over 
his Heart, Words and Deeds, conti- 

That he ftir up him fdf to Liberality 
towards Gods poor Saints. 

Th it he keep a ftria Watch over his 
wandnog Lufts and Affe&ions. 



That he prepare hicnfelf to bear the 
Crofs, by what means foever it pleale 
God to exercife him. 

That he look daily for the : coming 
of our Loxd Ictus Chrift, for his deli- 
verance out ot this Life. 

That he read fomethmg daily, of the 
Holy Saipture, for the further maeafi 
of Knowledge. 

JUarn thcfe few Lines by Hearth 


The Names and Order of the JSaoks of 
the Old < 


I Samuel 

II Samuel 
I Kings 
H Kings 

I Chronicles 

II Chronicles 























The Ads 
I Corinthians 
il Corinthians 

I Thefialomans 

II ThcHalonians 

I Timothy 

!1 Timothy 





I Peter 

II Peter 

I John 

II John 
UJ John 



Numeral Letters and Figures, which 
fcve for tie nady finding O f 
itr and f^erjc in the Eft ft. 


I. 1 . 

























^i. J2 twelve 

13 thirteen 

Bv 14 fourteen 

sr . 15 fifteen 

xv . Jd fececn 

17 Seventeen 



xyiii 1 8 eighteen 

six 19 nineteen 

xx 4 20 twenty 

xxi si twenty one 

xxi'i 22 twenty two 

xxiti 23 twenty three 

xsiv 24 twenty four 

xxv 25 twenty five 

xxvi 26 twenty fix 

xxvii 27 twenty feren 

xxviii 28 twenty eight 

xxis 2p twenty nine 

xxx 50 thirty 

xxxi 31 thirty one 

xxxii 3 a thirty two 

sxxjH 33 thirty three 

sxxiv 34 thirty four 

xxxv^ 3? thirty five 

xxxv^ 36 thirty fix 

xxxvii 37 thirty fcvcn 

xxxviii 38 thirty eight 




Tutor 3fnfar0efc, 

** 3P thirty ninine 

8l . 40 forty 

*V. 41 forty one 

x '!?. 42 forty two 

"I 11 43 forty three 

x . nv ' 44 forty four 

*fr < forty five 

xv ?. 46 forty Hx 

x v !!. 47 fo r iy fevcn 

x *' 48 forty eight 

. XIIX 49 forty nine 

50 fifty 

5* fifty one 

'.!. S2 nfty two 

S3 ^y three 

54 fi/ryfour 

fc 55 fifty five 

^ 56 fifty fa 

S7 fifty fcvc n 


59 fifty nine 


IK 60 fixty 

Ixt 61 fixty one 

Ixii 62 fixty two 

Ixiii 63 fixty three 

Ixfv 64 fixty four 

Ixv 65 frxty five 

Ixvi 66 fixty fix 

Ixvii 6*j fixty (even 

Ixyiii 68 fmy eight 

Ixix 6p fixty nine 

Ixx 70 fcventy 

Jxxi 71 fcventy one 

Jxxii 72 feventy two 

Jjfxui 73 feventy three 

Ixxiv 74 feventy four 

Ixxv 75 fcvcnty five 

Ixxvi 76 feventy fix 

Ixxvii 77 feventy fere 

hcxviii 78 feventy eight 

Irxis 7i? fcventy nine 

So tighty 
















Tutor 3)nliate& 
8 eighty one 
Si eighty two 

83 eighty three 

84 eighty four 

85 eighty 6(7e 

86 eighty fix 

87 eighty feren 

88 eighty eight 
Sp eighty nice 
po ninecy 

pi ninety one 

92 ninety two 

93 ninety three 
4 ninety four 
95 ninety five 
9<) ninety fix 
97 ninety fcven 
9% ninety eight 
99 ninety nine 

loo hundred 

no hundred and ten 



65 'flE&e jReto Cngfiffj 

cxx 120 hundred twenty 

CXX jc 130 hundred thirty 

cx l 140 hundred forty 

c l 150 hundred fifty 

Points and flops obfervcd'in Reading: 

Comina > 

Parenthefis ( ) 

Semicolon j 

Crotchets 1 3 

Colon i 


Full Point 


Interrogation ^ 
Admira ion 

Obelisk t 
Paragraph ^ 


Sedfon S 

c, n D ' * ludwenn on Di^edieui 

upon a Mule, and the Mule 

the thick Boughs, of a great Oak, 


Tutor . 

and he was taken up between the Hea 
ven and the Earth, and the Mule that 
was under him went away. 

JO- A "d a certain Man Taw it, and 
told Joab, and fa id, hehold 1 f aw Jb- 
Jalom handed in an Oak. 

. 14 Then faid J *b, I may not 
tarry thus with thee. And he took 
three Darts in his Hand, and thruft 
them through the Heart of AbjaAom 
while he was yet alive in the rmdft o 
the Oak. 

i.<. And ten Young-men tbat bare 
Joabs Armour compa (Ted about, and 
Imote dbfaloto, and flew him. 

Upon faffing Children. 

2 TCifigt r? Ltjk* went o from thence 

2. 23. JL^ unto ^^4 and as he 
was going jp by the Way, there 



68 'Sfjc &&&< 

came forth Si tie Children out of the 

City, and mock d him, and fatd unto 
him, Co up, thou Htld-bead, Co tip, 
thou Biild mad. 

24, And he turned back and look- 
ed on them, and curfed them in the 
name of the Lord, and there came 
forth two She-Bears out of the Wood, 
and tore forty and two Children of 

"Upon Lying Children. 

Ltike TN Hell he lift up his Eyes, 
1 6. 23. * being in Torments, and 
fcgth Abraham afar off, and LAZATU* 
in his B.oibai. 

24. And he cried, and faid, Father 
<$3rahmn* have mercy on me. and 

-** 1 * ** 

lend Lazjsrw, that he may dip the tip 
of his Finger in Water, and cool my 




AND while th- Children 

r u f //r4f/ wcre in th e 
f '- re y found a M n 4t 

gathered Sticks upon the 


3?. And they that found him ga- 
thenng of Sticks, brought him umo 
M&* and Ar w . and Unto all the 

34- And tbcy put him in Ward- 

rh , fafd to '^ 

the Man fhal! be ftrefy put to Death, 
A I Con g re g at ion ftalj Oonc him 
with Stones without tiieCamp. 

35. And 


36. And all the Congregation 
brought him without the Camp, and 
ffoned him with Stones, and he died 
as the Lord had commanded Moftt. 

Encouragement for ferlouj Children. 

HPHey brought young Chil- 
10- 13. A dren to Jefus, that he 
flioujd touch (hem, and his Ditciples 
rebuked thofe that brought them. 

14, But when Jefus Caw if, he was 
much jdifpleafed and faid unto them, 
Suffer the little Children to come unto 
me, and forbid them not, fot of fuch 
is the Kingdom of God. 

Our Days begin w th trouble here, 

our Life fa but a fpan \ 
And cruzl Death is atwajs near^ 
fo frail a thing it Man. 



n. r r 

Then fvw the f ge d so f Grace whilfl 

M0f ifer f J706 <W/2 d<? ^iV, 

Thm mey'&fagfarth that triumph f ns 
Death, Where'5 

The Ten Commandments. 

make to thet. 

L c' ^ B ^V MWA 

fcf babcwib flfe wt thouprofkane 

Tteld to thy Parents Honour due 

Jdfee that thou no Murder do. 

Commit than no Adufrcry. 

Moreover from all Stealing fly. 

MFdfe thing of thy Neighbour/^. 

^W Covet not in any ypay. 


between Chrift, Youth, 
and the Devil. 


ays which God to me does fend 
In Pieafure I refolve to /pend, 
as the Birds i'th' lovdy Spring, 
Sit'chirping on the Boughs and Sing, 
H/i^o Rraining forth their war b ling not 
Do make fwect Mufick in their throan: 
So I relolve, in this my Prime, 
In Sports and Plays to fpend my time. 
Sorrow, and Grief I'll put away, 
Such things agree not with my Day. 
From clouds my morning (hall be iree, 
And nought on Earth (hall trouble rae ( 
I will embrace each fweet delight 
The Earth affords me Day and Slight. 
Though Parents grieve and me correct 
Yet I their Counfel will reject. 




From the Neiv England Primer. Hartford : 7777 


Tutor Jnlac^B. 73 

^ Refolution which you take, 
Sweet Youth, it doth me merry make, 
Jf thou my Counfel wilt. embrace, 
And Gum the waysof Truth and Grace} 
And learn to lie, to curfe and (wear, 
And be as Proud as any are, 
And with thy Brothers will fall out, 
And Sifters with vile Language flout ; 
Tea, fight and fcratch, and aifo bite, 
Then 1 in tbee will take Delight. 
If thou. unit but be rul'd by me, 
An Anift f hou ihalt quickly be, 
In all my Ways, which lovely are, 
There's/e^ with (hec who /hall compare, 1 
Thy Paffnts always difobey, 
Don*c mind at all what they do fay ; 
And aifo pout and fulleri be, 
And thou flute be a Child forme, 
When others Read, be thou at Play, 
Think not on God, don't figh nor pray ; 



Nor be thoti fuch a filly Fool, 
To mind thy Book, or go to School ; 
But play the Truant, fear not, I 
Will help thee ftraightway to a lie, 
Which wi!! excule thee for the fame, 
From being whipt, and from all blamr. 
Come, bow tome, uphold my Crown, 
And I'll thee raife to high Renown, 


Thefe Motions I wilt, cleave unto, 
And let all other Counfel go. 
My Hrt againft my Parents now 
Shall hardned be : I will not bow, 
No, nor fubmit at all to them, 
But all good Counfef will contemn, 
And what I lift, to do wilt!, 
And irubborn be continuaHy. 


Wilt thou, OTonth 9 make fucri a choice, 
And thus obey the Devil's Voice ? 
Curft finftil Ways wilt thou embrace, 




And hate my Ways of Fear and Grace, 
Wih ihou a Rebel prove, 
And from thy Parents quite remove 
Thy Heart alfo ? Then thou wilt fee 
What will e're long become of rhcc ! 
Come think on God vvho did thee make 
And at his Presence dread and quake. 
Remember him now in thy Youth, 
And let thy Soul take hold of Truth. 
The Devil and his Ways defy, 
Believe him not, he doth but lie . 
His ways feem fvveef, but Youth beware, 
He for thy Soul hath laid a Snare : 
His Tweet will into foure turn, 
If in tbefe Ways thou ftill wilt run ; 
He will thee into pieces rare, 
Like Lions which mod hungry are. 
Grant me thy Hear:, thy Folly leave, 
And from the Lion i'l! thee fave ; 
And thou fhak have fweet Joy from me.- 
Which will hft to Eternity. 


My Heart {hall chear me in my youth, 
I'll have nwFrolicks in good truth 
Whate'er (eems lovely in mine Eye, 
My fclf of if I cann't deny. 
In mine own Ways I ftill will wallr, 
And fake delight among young Folk, 
Who fpend their days in Joy and Mirth, 
Nothing like tlut I'm fur e on Earth. 
Thy Ways O Chrfft, are not for me, 
They with my Age do hot agree. 
If I unto Ihy Ways fhouli cleave, 
No more good days then (ball i have. 


Woqldft thou live long and 'good etaj tfef 9 
Refrain from all Iniquity. 
True Good alone from me doth flow, 
It onn't be had In things bdowr. 
Are not my Ways, O Toutb t for thee ? 
Then thou (halt never happy be ; 
KOI ever fhall thy Soul obtain 
True goodj whilft here it doth remain. 


Tutor 3nlac&e&. 77 


Tothre, O Chrift, I'll not adhere, 
What thou fpeak'ft of doth notapptai 
Lovely to me, I cannot find 
Tis good to fee or place my mind 
On Wayt from whenccmy Sorrows faring, 
And to the Flefo fuch Croffes hiing. 
Don't trouble me, 1 muft fulfil 
My flefhly Mind, and have my Will* 


Unto thy felf then I'll thee leave, 
That Satan may tbee wholly ha?e. 
Thy Heart in bin fhall hardned be, 
And blinded in Iniquity. 
And then in Ire I'll cut thee flown, 
Like as the Grafs and Flowers mown* 
And to thy Woe thou (halt cfpy 
Qrildb od and Youth is Vanity : 
Tor all fuch things 1*11 make thee know 
To Judgment thou flwlt come alfo. 


5? $rto 

In Hell at la ft tHy Soul mufl burn. 
When thou thy finful Race- haft ron. 
Confider this, think on thine end, 
Lc/t God do thee to pieces rend. 


Amazed, Lord, 1 now begin, 
Q help ITU 1 and I'll kav? my sin: 
1 Uemble, and do greatly Fear, 
TothmKupon what I do hear. 
Lord ! I Religious now will be, 
And I'll from Satan ti^rn to thee. 


Nay,fWr//j L^^doo't change thy mind, 
Un to fuch Thoughts be not incJin'd : 
Cortie e^wr thy heart, roufe op, he glad, 
There is no Hell, Why art Jo fad ? 
Kat, drink, be flnerry with thy "Friend, 
Pot when thoody'ft, that'sthy lafl encL, 

as thefe I can't receive, 
Becaufe God's Woid I do believe : 



Tutor jmaugiB, 47 
None (hall in this deftroy my Faith, 
Nor do I mind what Satan faith. 


Although to thee herein I yield. 
Yet I e'er long fliall win the Field. 
Hiat there's a Heav'n, I can'c deny 
Vea, and a Hell of Mifery : 
I can t deny, 'tis a clear Cafe 
i hat Heaven is a lovely place. 
And cafie 'tis for to come there, 
Therefore take thou no farther Care 
All human I aws do thou obferve 
And /rom old Cuftoms never fwerve ; 

And thou flialt never go aftrav ^ 
rhoumay'ft bedroflk, ^fwear ftcurfe, 
And Sinners like thee ne'er the worfe 

At any time thoumay'fl repent, 
Twill ferve when all thy days are f pent 



Take heed, or elfe thou art Undone, 
Thefc thoughts are from the wicked one 
Narrow's the Way Chat leads to Life, 
Who walks therein do meet with flrife 
Few fhall be faved. Young man, know, 
Moft do unto Deftru&ion go : 
If righteous Ones fcarce faved be, 
What will at laft become of th*e ? 
O don't rejed my gracious Call, 
Left fuddenly in Hell you fa!!. 
Unlefs'tbat you converted be, 
God's Kingdom you (hall never fee. 

Lord, I am now at a great ftand, 
If I fhoald yield at thy Command, 
My Confcience will me much deride, 
And never more will me abide. 
Moreover, this I alfo know, 
Thou canft at laft great Mercy Ihow : 
When I am Old, and PJcafures gone. 


Tutor 3nlatffe&. 49 


; VMnTwth, thy Tint? is fart; 
I'll haye thy Breathil'll end thy Sport ; 
Thou fheclt not live 'till (hou art Old, 
Since thou in Sin art grown fo bold, 
I in thy Youth grim Death will fend, 
And all thy Sports fliall have an end. 


I am too Youne, alas ! to dye, 
Let Death fomc old Grey head efpy ; 

fpare me, and I will amend, 

And with thy Grace my Soul befriend; 
Or elfc 1 am undone, alas ! 
For I am in a woful Cafe. 


When 1 AH catt, thou itwlJft not betr, 
But did ft to me turn a deaf Ear : 
And now in thy Calamity, 

1 -will not mind, nor hear thy Cry, 
Thy Day is pafL be gone from me, 
Thou which doft Jove Iniquity 



Above thy Soul, or Saviour 
Who on the Crofs great Pain did bear." 
My Mercy tliou cidlt much abufe, 
And all good Coonfel didft refcfc; 
Jiiftice will therefore Vengeance take, 
And theeafed Example make. 
If thru feme loE^ger time flsould have, 
Thda rcoclri/t again to Folly cleave r 
ThercJfbic to thce I will not gi\ e 
Onel)ay on Esh longct to 

3,ifa'G$fne to fetch thy 

ta tlf Shfidrs irf Dcnth. 
on,il& J c&t-Jfa&j 
hxft tfy Gei ogtakd fo j 
*pyt HTM Body fti divide,, 
BKty In the Grave P8 m& , 
And thy dter Soul in Hull nut ft be 
With Df&iJt fo Etertiity : 
Tfav tMSZkt Dajs nl ysftdfwtk* 
Who jpot dV f wf mindm Tank. 


Tutor 3Jnlatst& 51 

Nor hearken to what Preachers fty, 
But do their freachers.difvbtiy ; 
The]/ w their Youth go down to ?/?//, 
Vndor ttvrnal Wrath to droe/1. 
Aftny don't live out half their 
unto faful Ww> 

Words fitly Spoken ? Or, Apples of 
Gold, in PiftHres of Silver. 

IT -is PC fhame to be poofj Mature 
frougHc us (b Into the World, and 
fo iV do return. 

; 2, Doft thou m/4nt things neceiunfr 
gr amble: ufit, perhaps tt was necef- 
Tarv thou mould*ft wafif howler, 
(etk a lawful Rerrtedy, if Obd bUft 
Twt thy Endeavour . olefe htm that 
Knowehwhat isfictcfl for tKce; thou 



art God's Patiem, prefcribe not to 
thy Phyfldan. 

3. He that is flow to ang^r, is bet- 
ter than the Mighty, and he that ru 
Jech Ms Spiri^ thin he that UKeth a 

4 Art thou falfely Slandered, ex- 
amine thy Conference ; if Guilty^ 
ihou haft a juft Corredion ; if not, 
a fair Inftrudion j Jfe both, fo fhalt 
thou diftil- Honey oat of Gal), and 
make to rhy felf a fecret Friend of an 
open Enemy. 

5. Pride goeth before Deduction, 
and an haugfity s pi r '^ before a Fall. 

6. U ts a difhcult Thing in thi5 
World to be Rich and Honourable 
and not wounded with the Darts <rf f 
Pride and Vaiu-lory. 

7. Wrath. 


Tutor , 3 

7. Wrath is cruel, and Afi e'er \s 
otitragious} bat who is able toTUnd 
before Envy. 

8. That Man is a Conqueror m 
deed, that can fubdue his own Paffb 

9. Faithful are the Words of a 
Friend ,. but the Kiffes of an Enemy 
are dece'itful. 

to, Open Rebuke is better than fe- 
cret Love. 

r r . The Touch Rone tries Gold 
and Gold tries Men. 

12. Jt is better to live where nothing 
is lawful, than where all things are 

i ?. The Wicked tfee when no Man 
purfueHi, but the Righteous Are boldi 
3.S a Lyon. 

$4 lje $cto-(injjltto 

14". The beft Way to k?ep good 
Acts m Memory, is to refrcfh them 
with new. 

15. Errors by Miftakes are pardon 
*b)e ; but wilful Ones are to be pu- 

1 6. Beware of Drink; where Drun- 
kennefs teign?, Reafon is in Exile, 
Vertue a Stranger, and God an Ene- 
my ; Biafpliemy is Wit, Oaths are 
RtetoricJc. and Secrets arc .Procliina- 

17. Nod being Drunk, in one 
Hour dTcoverl that which he hid 
concealed Six hundred Years. 

1 8. A wicked Man is a Blackfmith 
of Hell, that forget h Work for ;h: 



Tutor 3nlat#tk 55 

id Sentences, to be learned by 

A Woman Conceals what Hie knows 

A Proud Wife, and a Back-Door, 
oft<n makes a rich Man Poor. 

Better be Envied than Pitiied. 

Better fay, here it is, than here it 

A Horfe einnol evacuate Oats, that 
never eat them. 

Death keeps uo Kalendar. 

Drawn Wlis Ha?e the fweeteft 
Water, and are frldom dr7. 

Drink not others Healths, and for- 
get thine own. 

Drinking, Drabbing and DuelJin 
kill Men. 



He that (peaks what he fhould nor, 
hears what he woald not 

He calks much, but Tpeaks little. 

He that is Welcome, fares wed. 

He that comes uncal I'd, fits unferv'd 

He is meek that was never moved. 

Grace will laft, but Favour will 

He wants nctrouch, that is conten- 
ted with little. 

It's a running Plague to a Horfc, 
when a hafiy Afs rides him. 

Keep thy Tongue in Prifcn, to have 
thy Heels at Liberty 
Need makes the old Wife Trot, and 
the young Man Gallop. 

Play, Women and Winf, undo 
Men Laugning. 

Briars have Eyes % and VValh have 



Tutor JnlarffeD, 57 

The Life of a Man is & Winter's 
Day, and a Winter's Way, 

The old Man's Stall is a Rapper at 
Death's Door 

War makes Thieves, and Peace 
hangs em. 

Young Lamb-skins go as foon to 
the Mark* u as old Sheep. 

Youth rides well, when Age holds 
the Reins 

YoungMen may dye, old Men muft 


AguiV Prayer. 

T> Emove far from roe Vanity and 
** Lyes ; give me neither Poverty 
oor Riches, feed me with Fxi con- 
venient for me. 

Left I be full, and deny thee, and 
fay, Who is the Lord? Or, at leaft 
Tbe poor and ftl, and take ihe 
Name of my God in vain. 



s4dvice to Children. 
Hildren, confider -that you may 
Dye, as Young as you arc ; you 
fee Graves in the Field ftiorter 
than tbc fmalUft of you all. Confide?, 
that you may Periftv as young as you 
are there are frnaH Chips, as wcu as 
great Legs, in the Fire of HeiL COQ- 
lider, that it is wonderful pi eaGng to 
the Lord Jefus Chrift, for iuch as you 
are to feek unto him; he hath (aid, 
They that feel me earlyjhall find me ? 
Well' Ihcn, Children, hearken unto 
the good Inftru<5Uori$ of your Parents. 
If you would keep out of untimely 
MiTery* you moft honour them , and 
when they bid you to ftudy your Ca- 
tcchifm, and to order your Conver- 
fation aright, be not Jikc the Children 
of Eli, of whom 'tis faid, Theykeark- 




ned not unto the Voitttf ihtir Fathtr 
letAufc the Lord wwldjliy tbfW, 

Be Counfellfd, Childroj, not only 
to Learn well, but to Live well. 

Be Counfelled to flnmSin, cfpctial- 
ly faun the Sin of evil Speaking A 
Child that fhall call vil Names, or 
ufe curled Oaths, or utter filthy 
Words, is in a vyorfe Condition than 
one of the Chiidrcti .10 theGofpef, pof- 
fcfs'd by the Devil. 

Shun the Sin of Sabbath-bracing 
The Devil is the Play-Mate of the 
Child that will Play on the Sabbath- 

Shun the Sin of Lymge.Tbe Child 

that will tell a Lye, muft one Day toar 

in Hell, O for a Drop of Watet toeool 

my Tongue 1 And keep dear of bad 


I f you fee a prop liane Child be not 
intimate with that Child-. of Belial: 
You had as good fell into the Power of- 
the Bears, which devoured the Chil- 
dren that mocked the Minifier of God, 
as fall into the Hands of bad Compa- 

Be alfo Counfelled to Pray much 
When Children were brought unto Je- 
fus Chrift, heblefled them : How much 
more will he blefs you if you go your 
felf unto him? 

O go alone every Day, and Pray 
hard : Pray for a new Hcan, for the 
Pardon of your Sins, and for an Inte- 
teft in jefus Chrifo Let this Thought 
encourage you : Tbereare more Chit-* 
drenin Heaven than of any other Age. 



Chi!d behold that Man of Sin, the 
fi worthy thy otmoft Hatred. 

Thou (halt find in his Head,>(A) 

In hft Shoulders, (B) The Suppor- 
ter i oj Dif order. 

In his Heart, (C) Malice, A4rder, 
and Treachery- 

In his Arms, (D) Cruelty, 

In bis Knees, (E) Falfe Wcrfkip and 

In his Feet, (F) Smftnefs to fhed 

In his Stomach, (G) Infatfable Co* 

In his Lovns, (H) Tfoworft 



The POPE, or Man of Sins 



The POPE, or Man of SIN. 

Ne-iv England Primer. Boston : 1737 





[ I S59] 


THE history of this poem has already been given in the introduction (pages 32-3?) and 
therefore need not be retold here. Of the edition of 1559, from which the following 
title-page and Exhortation are excerpted, but two copies are known, one being in the 
Huth Library and the other in Bodleian. In Ritson's Bibliographica Poetica (page 334) it 
is stated "This piece, commonly call'd 'John Rogerses primmer,' was printed, with other 
things, under the title of ' An exhortation of Mathewe Rogers vnto his children,' 1559, 8vo 
(Herbert, 1600); and enter'd to John Arnold, I3th October 1577. Bale, among the 
English works of Johannes Rogers, enumerates 'Ad filios ex carcere, Lib. I.' A copy, in 
the library of Emanuel-college, bears the name of Thomas Mathew, which was assume d by 
Rogers in his translation of the bible ; and hence, it may be, he obtain'd the name of Mathew 
Rogers, unless it were, more likely, a mistake of M. (i. e. master) Rogers. He, too, was 
a Martyr in the same year with Smith, to whom Foxe, a diligent collector, and good author- 
ity, ascribes the poem in question. 

There was a second edition of the tract, leave to print which was granted to John Arnold, 
in 1577, and recorded on the Stationer's Register in the words "Licensed vnto him a litle 
booke Conteyninge theis matters viz the complainte of veritye made by John Bradforde, An 
exhortacon of Mathewe Rogers to his Children " etc. No copy of this edition is known. 

The poem is not in the three first editions of Foxe's Actes and Monuments the true 
title of the work popularly known as the Book of Martyrs and the earliest edition in which 
the editor has found it is in the seventh (London : 1632) where it is printed in volume 1 1 1, 
page 405, as "The exhortation of Robert Smith unto his children, commonly set out in the 
name of Master Rogers." An interesting change in this text is the addition of marginal 
references to various parts of the scriptures. 

It was from Foxe apparently that Harris took it for insertion in the Protestant Tutor, 
the New England Primer and the New English Tutor. No edition of any one of those books 
is known which does not contain the poem, and the editor has seen but two editions of the 
New England Primer which does not contain also a cut of the burning. As already stated 
the illustration in the Book of Martyrs differs radically from those in the Primers, in omit- 
ting the " wife with nine small children, and one at her Breast " from the scene. It is to be 
noted, too, that the text in the New England Primer is materially abridged from the original. 

^f^pp?r- *p5? ; 

* ** 


i' : ' , Xiln lie- r.t h 

in L<,n1cn. WA. th'.' Srfl V'.i'- 
r, i', T - ,' .'< , < :,nJ iv j. t 
.il '. , F^/ 1 / ^ ,. v ; . 'i\. i , 

'V ' . ; . n r.'. i nali Cni'. 

fo'lo vir.g lii.-ii to t!.<: 
. ' ; -.t he waj iv t 

v.-TiH. r\! | 
' . , vly f^,- t )c 

J i. . o -. C 


England Primer. Boston : 



3(n crftoztaeion of 
nt o Ijis 

complaint of Kaufe 
lertonanti otl>rs,beitt3 pzifo 
nets in iLolcts toUier, 

C3 fonge of Caine anD SfteH. 
tirfte rateng of maiftet ^onptr , 
tooretljemglbt before I/e fuferet), 
pbn a toali ^itl) a colc,in tf;e netoe 3ln, 
at <25loceter 3 



fnftruction of a father to 
)IjetD^ote a feto 


mp C^ID^n to mp 

^oD Imtfte Deatelpc 

airt p^int tft cm tn ^our t bought 



f o?3 rout fatftet fmue fojefene, 
I I)e fraple an& fpltf# toap : 
mtytl) fleflj $ bloufc toouia foloto fame 
curn to tfjet'r otoneDecap* 

f o? ail anti euerp ifupngbeaff, 
tftetr cribbc t)0 fenotoe full ielk 
a3ut miam0 fcepje$ aboue t^c reft, 
are rcaUp to rebel!. 

3nti all tfee creatures of tfce eartlj, 
full toell Do feepe tijef r Uoa? : 

f o?eartt)atiuaae]6f feftfe ftrengflj, 

a(nU into afte^ at tl?e Ungt!;, 
^e all returne againe, * 

f o^ flefte tiotft florae l^fee a flcure, 
anD grotoe fcp Iifee a graffe: 
%iti fe confuineD in an toure, 
a# it income to paffe. 

f outlier mage of ?our pearei> 
pour treafure anD pour f ruft : 

m noloe Dpeng before pour fa> 

2 53 

jfoj as pou fee your f at&erg flcflJe, 
ronfumefcinto clap: 
Cuen fo (Bailee mp dnltyen Deare, 
confume anti toeare atoap* 

tftat ferue tljc Dap anD ntgbt : 
Cfte cart!) anD euerp cartW^ tfttnge, 

that ftatft btnefjearD o? fene: 
felial clean cofume f turne to nought 

'Cfterfo^e fee tftat pe folotoe me, 
pour father anfrpout frenDe : 
gnD enter tnto tlje fame lanfce, 
"i^Mtlj neuer tyall Ija tie enDe. 

J leaue pou fyere a little boo^e, 
tip)atpoumapfee,pourfatl)erg face 
toljen ^e fe DeaD anti gon. 

tftfle ^e Dft ft ere remapne : 
(^aue oner all fn# golDen pear e?, 

tobete 3 among mine iron banbe& 
jnrtofeDmtbe Darker 
3 fetoe trape0 before mp Deatf;, 

3nD in example of pour poutb* 
to tobome 3 toiflje all gooD: 
3 pjecbe pou ftere a perfect troutfc, 
anD feale it tentl) mp b! ouD. 

UDo pou mine ^eire0 of ertijlp t^urgg 
toicl) 31 Do leaue befttnDe: 
Cbat pou map reaDe ei tjnberftanUe, 
anD feee pe it in pour minDe. 

i:bat asr pe bane bene I;eire0 of tbat 
tobicbe once 8)ali toeare a toap: 
c^uen fo pe mape poffc (Te tbat parte, 
tobicb neuer (ball Decap. 

31n folotomge of pour fatljer^ feete^ 
pe map be alfo bates toitb bim 

i^aue goU altoapeg before pout tft$ 
ttntbal pour U>bole intentr : 
Commit not finne in anp toife, 
fceke Iji.s comma unDemcnt. 

3bl)02rc that arrant boote of ftome 
ant! all Vr blafpljettue# 
3fnD tytnfce not of fyer fcecretaleg, 
nojpct of ijer Decreed 

d5cue bonour to pour mother Deare 
remember toell ber patne : 
3ta& recompence ^er in fter age, 
m Ipfec txuti) loue agatne. 

litemember loell j>our farter^ fall* 
iljo OjotilU l^aue bene !)er (lap. 
<^eue of pour portion to t^e poo?e, 

^nt) from tfjc neeDp nafeeti foule, 
eurne not atoap pour cpe^ 

$l \)t ttyat totll not ftere t^e crpe, 
of tt^cm t^at ftanD in neefce : 
^)l)al crpe bimfelfe ant) not be ftarue, 
toljcn be tooulD Ijope to fpeetie, 

3f (5oU baue geuen pou fncreafe. 
an& bletTeli toell pour fto^e ; 
iScmember pe are put in truft 

Betoare of fotile anD filtfjp lull* 
let fucbe t binges tjaue no place: 
&epe cleane pour fcellelg in 
tbat he map pou embrace. 

peace tije temples oftbe lojD, 
foi pe are tit arlp bougtjt: 
3nD tbep tljat Do Defile ttjc fnme 
Qiall furelp come to nought. 

^odeffe not p;iDe in anp tuifei 
bialDenot pour Imufe to t)ie: 
But l)aae altoaie0 befou pour eic0 
tbat pe be bo?ne to Dpe. 

BefrauDe l)im not tbat biteD ^ 
pour labour to (Maine: 

againft pou ftoulD pzoceDe: 
^oo poirtlie fame to tl^tn agauie 
t9ben tt?cp Do (lanD in neeDeu 
3nD part pour potion to 
fti monep anD in meate: 
3toD feeDe tbe faintcD ff able fotue 
toith tbat t^cb^ pc foouU) eate. 


Cbat toben pout memberetflacfcetfi 
ana dotting to ttmr bacfce: (meate 
ma? tbe better tbmfce on tljem, 

a&ffce cotinfeple allafe# at tije U}ire 

Befufe not pen tl)e ftoete rebti^e^ 
of bim tbat 10 rour frenBe* 
23e tljanhefull altxiaie^ to tfte lo$, 
loitb pjaier anjO toit^j^aife: 
^firing fyim in all potn: too?fce#, 

^nU ftnne not Ufee % ffcn'n? fo^te 
txjtiofe belliejB? beingfefc: 
Confwme t^icr pere^ upon tlje earft, 
from bellp l)nto be& 

^cKe fir ft 31 fap ttje Ipti^ng 6oUt 

3nt) tljen be fure tl?at Ije totll bleflfe> 
j>or baf bet anD pour ftoje. 
3nD tliu^f if you Birect pour &ape#, 

fc^ ^ ^_ f * V 

fap t bat fe i>our 

3M)fc$enpottl)aue ttyg perfectly, 
opon pour fingerg enfteff: 
IBodclfet) all Mlliin tl)t bcofee, 
tljen geue tt to pour frenfceg. 

replenie poutoitl) grace: 
^Tftat 3 ma?) ^aue pou (n ft e ^eauens? 
atiD fee you face to face. 
^nDtfjotigfjtfjeOBOzbefcauecut me of 
contrary to mptiptffle: 

fOulDnottniop^our loue, 

3 ftal tecef tie pou in perfect ftape, 

and pou in tope ti?e lantie : 
3 fcoo befec^e tfte itupnge <5oU, 

#ar eUiel mp cfttlD^en from tfje too^tlt) 
toljcrc pe muft pet remapne : 
*& &o#) of ^o(le0 be pour Defence, 


tfaretoai! mp true anti loupttg 
mp CWtyen anD nip frenDes : 
3 ijope in <&>oD to baue ?t)u all 

3infc if you Doe abiHe.m <5oD, 
a# pott ftaue ttola begonne : 
j>out courfe31 toarrant Qjalbe ffiojte, 
yott fjaue not ionge to ronne 
raut pou fo to enUe pour 

'Ctjat 31 map tyatte pou tn tlje tytimcn* 

cf inte qtion Spatl>ete Eoger^. 






Out of the Breads of both 



Chiefiy,for thefpiricuallnourifliment 
of Lofton Babes in either Zngltnd: 
But may be of like ufe for any 

**d Tf Acker to the Chterch flfBcfion 
ir. New-England- 

Printed by ^, Coe,t<x Hear} Overt6ts f 
and arc to be fold at his Shop* ia 
*Pefes-liftid Alley, 








THE following article forms the preface to Cotton Mather's "Man of God Furnished," 
(already mentioned in the introduction, page 43) which consisted of abridgements of 
Cotton's " Spiritual Milk for Babes" and of the Assembly's "Shorter Catechism." 
Concerning this work Mather in his advertisement wrote : "Be assured, Reader, the only 
Reason, why it has been thought Adviseable, a little to Shorten those passages in, THE MILK 
FOR BABES, which refer to the Different Ministry ^f the Laiu and of the Gospel, and to 
the, Constitution of the particular Church-State, is this. We do by long experience find, that 
those Questions have proved a great Encumbrance to our Babes, in their learning of the Cate- 
chism : And the Excellent Author himself had not been so large upon them, if he had not 
had an Eye, to certain Special Exercises upon the minds of the faithful AT THAT TIME, 
in the land. The Present Time, it may be, does not call for so Large a Proportion of those 
Questions, in such a very brief System of the Christian Religion, which our Babes are to be 
fed withal. And yet that we may pay all possible Deference to that incomparable Catechism, 
there is care taken, summarily to give under Tiuo Questions, all that was given under Nine 
before : Not one Jot or Tittle of the Doctrine, or one drop of the Milk, is really taken 
away. That Golden Composure, THE ASSEMBLIES CATECHISM (no more than any 
other Humane composure), suffers no Disparagement, by being supposed capable of an Abridg- 
ment. Examine it, Reader whether what was contained in One Hundred and Seven Questions, 
be not now really contracted and contrived into Thirty T*wo. If it be so, the Littleness of the 
Task, in getting it by heart, must needs be no Little Encouragement unto weaker Capacities, 
to undertake it. And if our pious Householders purpose to lodge the rest which our WAY 
OF TRUTH has here prepared for them, or, at least, the Scriptural part of it, in the Mem- 
ories of their Children and Servants, they will not wonder at it, that we make the First 
Burdens that we lay upon them, as easy as ever we can." 


An ADDRESS to, (them that fiould be) The INSTRUCTORS of 

the Ignorant : 

THAT the Principles of the Chriftian Religion {hould be Be- 
times inftilled into thofe, who are under our influences, there ValueofCate- 
is all the Reafon imaginable ; there are none but what con- chising 
fefs it infinitely Reafonable. That the way of inftilling the Chrijiian t-^JT^y 
Religion, by Catechifing, or a conference carried on with ghiejlion and 
Anfwer, is very Necessary, and highly agreeable to awaken the At- 
tention,and Enlighten the Understanding of the Catechumens ; this alfo 
is the confeilion of all, who have confidered, but how Mankind is to 
be dealt withal. 

The Exhortations, to Set up & keep up, that admirable work 
of CATECHISING, in the Church of God, have been with a vaft Catechising 
Variety of Argument and Affection Repeted (2) fince the Great Auftin the mainstay 
wrote his Book, De Catechizandis Rudibus. With One Voice they of Christianity 
have concurred unto the Declaration of Clemens, the famous Cate- 
chift in the Church of Alexandria ; Without Catechising we Jhall 
foon be without Chriftianity. But why fhould they need any Repeti- 
tion, unto thofe who Believe, that we are all Hastening unto a Future 
State, and that the Children of Men muft be Miferable in the Future 
State, if here coming to their Adult State, they do not Know Him, 
whom to Know is Life Eternal. 


Cotton Mather on Catechising 

Great Num- 
ber of Cate- 

Extract from 

Results of 
Catechism to 
Church of 

The very many Sorts of Catecbifms, which have been Publimed 
(the Catalogue whereof would arife to fome Hundreds), and the huge 
Numbers of all Sorts (whereof fome have arifen to very many Hun- 
dreds of Thousands') have practically Exprefled the fenfe of the 
Chriftian World; concerning the Needfulnefs and Vfefulnefs of 

What was done this way by the Chriftians, in the Primitive 
Times, not we, but a Learned Papift fhall Report unto you ; [and 
bis IVitnefs is true /] Gallenius tells us, The Catechumens were then 
fo Instructed, every one of them was, Majori rerurn Chriftianarum 
Luce Peritiaque Pr<zditus, quamin norftis (non dicam Vulgaribus Chrif- 
tianis,fed et quod pudendum /?,) Sacerdotibus multis deprebendiums. 
Many Priefts of the Later Ages, were not fo well skill'd in Chriftianity. 

All that have Read the Hi/lory of the Se- (3) paration of the Faith- 
ful, from the Rornijh Babylon, have been fomewhat informed of the 
mighty Confequence, whereof Catechifmg has been unto the Refor- 
mation. Celebrated is the Hiftory of the Unfuccefsful Attempts 
which the Popift Missionaries made upon the Vaudois', the Children 
were fo well Catechised, it feems, the Seducers could have no Suc- 
cefs upon them. And the Church of Rome has taken the Alarum ; 
the Romanifls alfo are become in their way indefatigable Catechifers. 
The Jefuites efpecially, becaufe they count themfelves the greateft 
Catechifers, boaft themfelves the greateft Confervators of their Chris- 
tianity. Yea, there is now fcarce any Sect, of them who never ceafe 
to Pervert the Right wayes of the Lord, but they are now got into this 
Way ; even thofe who decry all Forms, yet cannot keep out of This : 
'tis by Incejfant Catechifing, that they propofe to attain their Ends. 
And Judaifm itfelf may raife the Emulation of Chriftianity. For 
Buxtorf tells us, The Jews have to this Day fome Footfteps of the an- 
cient Difcipline and Catechifmg in their Families'. For they fo Cate- 
chife their Children, that their skill in 'Judaism at Seventeen, Exceeds 
the Knowledge that many of us have in Chriftianity at Seventy. Thus 

Cotton Mather on Catechising 265 

has this Mode of Injlructlng brought mankind into a great Opin- 
ion of it ! 

The Renowned Synod of Dart, after a moft mature Delibera- 
tion, fent forth an Advice (4) well worthy of fuch an Aflembly ; De Testimony of 
Accuratiore Juniorum atque Adultorurn Catechizative. And they re- Synod of Don 
commended a Threefold Catechizing; A Dome/tick by Parents; A -^^T^^3 
Scholq/tick by Tutors ; and, an Ecclefiajiickal by Paftors or Elders. 

In the same Order of Addrefs, we will now importunately call 
upon thofe, whofe concern it is, to Catechife our Young People, and 
Feed the Lambs, in the Churches of the Lord. 

And, firft, if it be the concern of any under Heaven, it cannot 
but be Tours, O PARENTS, to Catechife your Children, in the Address to 
Principles of the Doctrine of Chrift. It is to YOU, firft, that the Parents 
Counfil of Wifdom is directed ; Prov. 224. Train up, (or Gate- c^T'^-^? 
chize) a Child, in the way he fiould go : 'Tis to be done, even (as 
'tis by some rend'red,) In the very Entrance of his way. The Things 
of God, and His Religion, are thofe whereof You have received 
this Commandment from Heaven ; Deut. 6 7. Thefe things, Thou 
/halt teach them diligently unto thy Children, and thou Jhalt talk of them 
when thou fittest in thine Houfe. Without Catechifing your Children, 
you never can yield Obedience to the Holy Commandment: Eph. 
6. 4. Bring up your Children, in the Nurture and Admonition of the 
Lord. You fee the Word of a King : we call upon you in the 
Name of that Great King whofe Name is Dreadful : Let there be 
fuch Power in it, as to Awe you to do the Things that pleafe Him. 

Indeed You do very notably Serve yourfelves, when you Teach 
your Children. Your Well Catechifed Children, will be your Com- The ^well- 
fort, your Honour. Happy the Man that has his Quiver full of them ! catechised 
It may be, God will make them Sweet Blejffings to you, if you 
Teach them to be true Servants to Him. Your Children will cer- 
tainly be the more Tractable, the more Orderly ; you will keep up 
Tour Authority over them the better, for your Catechifing of them. 

266 Cotton Mather on Catechising 

If God Smile on your Serious Endeavours, with what Joy will 
Rewards to y OU $ ee y OUr Children walking in the Truth ! You will Rejoyce 
greatly. Your Neighbourhood will alfo have the Joyful Advantage 
of it. All the Neighbours that have any Good in them, or Love to 
Good, will Blefs God, and Blefs You, for the Good, which Tour well- 
inftructed Children do in the World. And Religion will thus, by 
your means, be Propagated unto the Next Generation. The Law 
of Ifrael, being thus Made known to your Children, the Generation 
to come, will reap the Harveft of your Excellent Endeavours ; Yea, 
the Children that are to be Born, will arife, and declare it unto their 
Children ; and they will Set their Hope in God, & keep His Com- 
mandments. Or, (hould the Children mifcarry [which God forbid !] 
after you have Endeavoured their best Education in Catechiftng of 
them, You will still have this Peace of Conscience, I did my Duty ! 
But if (6) the Duty which you owe unto the Children, that are com- 
mitted unto you by God, be left Undone, it muft needs leave such 
a Sting upon the Confcience, as upon the Death of thefe Poor 
Children, or your own, will be a thoufand times more Bitter than 
Death. By Catechizing your Children you Enrich their Minds, with 
incomparable Treafures : You lay a Foundation to render them 
Temples of God, wherewith no Artificial Structures, tho' never so 
stately, are to be compared. But if they are kept Ignorant of the 
Things of their Peace, this Ignorance will be, but the Mother of De- 
ftructlon unto them. You know the word of God: Prov. 19, 2. 
That the Soul be without Knowledge it is not Good. Your Children 
will never be full of Goodnefs, if they be notJHFd with Knowledge. If 
the Image of God be Renewed upon them, the firft Lineaments of it, 
will be in Knowledge. Without That, they will Retain the Image of 
Satan on them ; they will Stumble along in the dark Empire of Sa- 
tan, the Ruler of the Darknefs of this World ; they will be a Morfel 
for Satan at the last : Brought forth for the Murderer ! 

The Souls of your Children make a Cry in your Ears, O Pa- 

Cotton Mather on Catechising 267 

rents ; a cry enough to break an Heart of Adamant. They are Teaming of 
Born Children of Wrath ; and when they grow up, you have no Children f or 
way to Save them from the dreadful Wrath of God, if you do net 
Catechife them in the Way of Salvation. They cry to you ; (7) O our 
dear Parents ; Acquaint us with the Great God, and His Glorious 
Chr'ift that so Good may come unto us ! Let us not go from your Ten- 
der Knees, down to the Place of Dragons. Oh ! Not Parents, but 
Ojlriches : Not Parents but Prodigies ! What, but more cruel than 
the Sea-MonJiers are the Parents, who will not be moved by fuch 
Thoughts as these, to Draw out the Breajts of the Catechifm, unto 
their Young Ones ! One would think, Parents, Your own Bowels, 
if you have not Monjlroujly loft them, would Suggeft enough to 
perfwade you unto the Pleafant Labours of the Catechifm. 

You cannot be Children of God your felves, if you are not 
Sollicitous, that your Children fhould become the Servants of God : Punishment of 
If you can bear to fee them Traitors to God, and Vassals of the unheeding 
Devil. It is the Character of every Pious Parent in the World ; Pareats 
Gen. 18.19. / Know him, that he will command his Children, and 
Houfehold after him, and they fhall keep the way of the Lord. 

Both of the Parents are under Obligations to this Work of God. 
Even the MOTHERS must not reckon themfelves Excufed ; no, Duty of 
but as in some regard, their Opportunities to Catechife the Children are Mothers 
Singular, fo are their Obligations. It was well for Solomon, that he 
had his Mother Bath/heba ; It was well for (8) Timothy, that he 
had his Mother Eunice, to Catechife him. Oh ye Handmaids of the 
Lord ; The Lavj of Christ, should be so Set home upon your 
Children, that it may be faid unto them, Forfake not the Law of thy 
Mother ! Your Children may fay, In Sin did my Mother conceive me. 
Why should they not alfo have caufe to fay, My Mother did what 
Jhe could, that I might be Saved out of my Sin ; and come to the Knowl- 
edge of my Saviour ! You have the Children very much with you; 
You Feed them ; you Drefs them ; They fly to your Wing; you may 

268 Cotton Mather on Catechising 

Catechife them every day ; you may be continually dropping some- 
thing of the Catechifm upon them : Some Honey out of the Rock ! 

And the Majlers muft alfo be Put in mind, that the Servants 
Masters and in the Family are their Children. The Servants alfo must be Gate- 
Servants chifed ; give them some Liefure to Learn the Catechifm ; Some Re- 
* T^J ward, when they have duely Learnt it. Let them on this Account 
have caufe Eternally to acknowledge the Compafsion of God unto 
them, in bringing them to Live in a Family, where fuch care was 
taken of them. 

It may be, the Advice will find out, and fall on, Some of the 
ThePrimitive Chofen of God, if our Difcourfe proceed unto fo much Particularity, 
as to fay ; That the Servants in the Houfe, may come to do the part 
^""^ of Parents unto the Children in their Afliftences unto this glorious 
Work (19) of the Lord. Even the Handmaids in our Families, who 
tend upon the Children, how much may they do, in Teaching them 
their Catechifm? Among the Primitive Chriftians, there are fome, 
who tho' they had no Need of it, yet bound themfelves to be 
Servants in Pagan Families here and there, on purpofe, for nothing 
elfe but that they might convey the Iri/lruction of Chrijtianity into 
thofe Families, and obtain their Converjion to Chriftianity by Inftruct- 
ing them. God profpered them Wonderfully ! We do not Pro- 
pound the Whole Action to be imitated. But the Devout, flaming, 
Heroick Zeal of the Action may in the Imitation, operate thus far. 
If Servants would once come to take Delight in it, they might every 
day, keep Teaching the Children the Truths of Religion, and marvel- 
loufly Adorn the Doctrine of God their Saviour. Examples of such a 
thing have fometimes occurr'd among us : Exemplary Servants : 
worthy to be Efteemed Children ! 

We befpeak, All Hands to the Work. It must be the Work of 

the SCHOOL too. The School-matter, the School-mi ftrefs, must be 
master should /-, , a r<- iri 

be a CateMst a ^ atec "U*' ^ n some Reformed Places, the Magiftrate countenances 

none to keep a School, but what appears with a Tejlimonial, of their 

Cotton Mather on Catechising 269 

Ability, and their Dispojition (10) particularly, \Aptitudinis ad munus 
illud, imprimis Puerorum Catechizationem~\ for the Work of Religious 
Catechifing. We read, The Little ones have their Angels. To keep 
a School, is a moft heavy, grievous, Wearifome Work ; It is hardly 
ever fufficiently Recompenced. But then, to Catechife the Children, 
and bring them to Know the Holy Scriptures, this is a Noble Work ; 
we had almoft call'd it A Work for Angels. Be not Weary of this 
Welldoing. Certainly, Tis a Nobler Work, to make the Little Ones 
know their Saviour, than to know their Letters. The Lefsons of 
yefus are Nobler things than the Lessons of Cato. A Sanctifying 
Transformation of their Souls, were a Nobler Thing, than meerly to 
conftrue Ovids Metamorphofis. Every Week, Let the School have 
one or two Catechetical Exercifes. And when you set your Scholars, 
to Write Copies, or make Latin, why may not the Catecbifm afford 
Materials for them ? This would make the Golden Nails to ftick the 
Fafter in their Minds. By such Methods you may be fo Serviceable 
to them in their Higheft Interefts, as to make a Real Problem of that 
(i i) which in the Schools they sometimes Thematize upon ; Whether 
Children may not be as much Endebted unto their TUTORS, as unto 
their Parents? 

Well ; But how shall this Work be Prudently managed ? We 
(hall doubtlefs all agree, That it {hould be Prayerfully managed. A Prayer to 
When a more Solemn Catechifing is to be prosecuted, it is not unfuit- precede Cate- 
able, to Look up unto God, at the Beginning, with a Short Supplica- chtsin S 
tion of that Importance ; Lord, Open our Eyes, that we may behold the 
wondrous things in thy Law ; and that we may be made Wife unto Sal- 
vation. And it is very fuitable, that the Conclusion mould be a more 
Exprefsive & Extended Supplication ; yea, and that the Catecbifm 
should be turn'd into Supplication. 

But it is a point of Extreme Importance in a Catechifing, that 
the Under/landings of the Children, mould have the Truths of the 
Gofpel in them, as well as their Memories. 

270 Cotton Mather on Catechising 

Teachers, You will do well to Try, and Help their UnderJJand- 
ings, by breaking every Anfwer of the Catechifm, into Little Parcels, 
into Lejfer hiejlions, to which (12) a pertinent War dot two of theirs 
might be all Their Anfwer. 

For Inftance. When the Children have faid ; God has made me, 
Method of He keeps me, and can Save me. Ask them ; What ? Is there then a 
Catechising God, who made all things ? 
*^^~^T^^-s Did you make yourfelf? 
Who then made you ? 
Can you keep yourfelf? 

Should you not quickly fall into all Miferies, if God did not keep 
you ? 

Who is it that has Fed you, and Cloath'd you, and helped you, and 
bejtow'd upon you all the Good things that you have Enjoy' d all this 
while ? 

Can you Save yourfelf, out of the Miferable condition, into which 
you are fallen ? 

Unto whom are you to Look for Salvation ? 

When the Children have faid ; The Chief End of Man, is to glor- 
ify God, and Enjoy Him forever. Ask them ; What? Then is there 
fomething that every man Jhould propound to himfelf as his chief End? 
Is it the chief End of man to seek himfelf, or to make himfelf great? 
Or, to Enjoy the Riches or Pleafures of this World ? (13) 
Or, muft we propound it, as our chief End, to Glorify God, and 
Enjoy Him forever ? 

And, if we do actively fet our felves to Glorify God, in our Obedi- 
ence to Him, Jhall we Enjoy Him for ever? 

Alas, we find, Many who can Say their Catechifms, do know very 
Saying the Little of what they Say. But this way of coming at their Under- 
Catechism by ftandings will bring them into Gofhen immediately ; into a Marvel- 
rote bus Light. 

Yea, But vou ftiould contrive that their Hearts and Lives may 

Cotton Mather on Catechising 271 

be fhaped by the truths thus got into their Under/landings. They 
fhould not only know, That God has made them, and does keep them, 
and can save them, They fhould be ask'd ; 

Whether they will serve the God that Made them ? 

Whether they Give Thanks to God for Keeping them ? 

Whether they Pray to God, that He would Save them ? 

They fhould not only know, That the chief End of Man is to 
Glorify God, and Enjoy Him for ever ; they fhould be ask'd; (14) Multiply 

Whether they fix upon this, as Their chief End? the Questions 

Whether they defire the Help of God, that they may Glorify Him ? * ""~*~~\J 

Whether they had rather Enjoy God, than have all the Enjoy- 
ments in this World? 

When the Catechifm tells them the Condition whereunto Sin 
has brought them, Let them tell you, what they Think of this 
condition : whether it be not a very Sad Condition : And, whether 
they would not gladly be Delivered from it. 

When the Cathecifm tells them Who the Redeemer is, and what 
He does for finful men ; Let Them tell you, what they would have 
Him do for Them. 

When the Catechecifm tells them, the Good things, that muft be 
found in, and done by, the People of God ; Let Them tell you, 
Whether they beg of God that they may attain to Such things as 

Who can tell, but while the Bleffed echo's of Truth, are in this 
Catechifing, thus paffing between You and Them, their Young Possibleresults 
Hearts may Burn within them, and by a verticordious Efficacy from 
Heaven be Drawn unto the Lord, and even Surprif'd into fuch a 
Confent (15) unto the Gofpel, as may prove a Real, and a Lafting 
Work of Regeneration upon them ? Oh ! that the Chriftian World, 
were fill'd with the Experiments ! 

And yet none of all this Diligence in Other Teachers, about, One 
of the Beft of Works, need Superfede your Diligent Application unto 


Cotton Mather on Catechising 

Address to 

an honorable 

it, O Ye PASTORS of the Flocks : your Pajhral care about it, 
will be unfpeakably Pleafing unto the Lord, O Ye MINISTERS 
of His, who would Study to do His Pleafure. 

Sirs, You cannot but upon fad experience find, That your Ser- 
mons, tho' never fo well-compofed Meat-Offerings for the Houfe of 
your God, will be very much loft, upon an Uncatecbifed People : 
Or, as our Flavel Exprefles it ; All your Excellent Sermons will be 
dajhed to pieces on the Rock of your Peoples Ignorance. And that your 
Unattentive Hearers [if they may fometimes be called Hearers /] 
take not near so much Notice of what you Speak in the Pulpit, as 
they would of what you might Speak unto them, in the more Ap- 
proaching and Familiar way of Catechiftng. There never was in this 
World, a Minifter of the Gofpel, who (16) was a Great Catechizer, 
and Repented of it. There have been Thoufands, who have ufed 
very Great Labours in Catechifing, and have given very Great Praifes 
unto God, for the Succejfes that have attended them. Nor have the 
Confolations of a Walk with God, and the Inclinations of a Walk in 
the Spirit, more accompanied them, in any part of their Ministry, 
than when they have been Going about from Houfe to Houfe, to Do 
this Good, among their People. 

The moft Honourable Man of God cannot reckon it, any Profti- 
tution of his Character in the Evangelical Miniftry, to ftoop unto 
this Way of Teaching ; but it would bring him the Apteft Occafion 
imaginable, to do the part of a Wife winner of Souls, upon thofe who 
are of all the moft likely to be Won upon. It is the Opinion, both 
of Chemnitz, and of Zanchy ; That the Exercife, which our Saviour 
in His Youth, honoured with His Prefence was, A Catechiftical 
Exercife. A moft Honourable Exercife ! Yea, fome Eminent 
Minifters, in their Emerited Old Age, when other Services of the 
Evangelical Miniftry in their (17) Congregations have been too hard 
for them, have [like the famous Old Gerfon^ wholly given themfelves 
up to the work of Catechifing : and have not been of the Apprehen- 

Cotton Mather on Catechising 273 

fion which that brave Chancellour of Paris, in his Treatife, De Pueris 
ad Chriftum trahendis, does animadvert upon : Adeo jam indignum 
videtur apud multos, Si guis ex Theologis, out famatus in Litteris vel 
Ecclejiajiica Dignitate Prceditus, ad hoc opus fe inclinaverit. 

Nor can the moft Lively vigour of Touth, be better Employ'd, 
than in calling upon the Children, in our Flocks, to come, and Meat unto the 
Harken unto us, while we Teach them the Fear of the Lord. In a househo _ ld 
Perfonal Injtruction wifely carried on, we (hall put into the very 
Mouths of our Children, the Food, which we only fet on the Table 
before them, in our more Publick Difpenfations. And fhall we thus 
give to each in the whole Houfehold, their Meat in due Seafon ? 
Blejfed is that Servant, whom his Lord, when he cometh, Jhall jind So 

- t 




Comftf-d by rbe 



Pr 9 o ft thereof out oftheScrtptoru 

Which are di her Tome of the former- 
ly quoted phccs, or ottiers gatjiercd 
gj fromtherrothfrWriringSiaUEttcd 
both for Brevity< Clf ^ this 
their For m of Sound WorJt. 

the Benefit of Cttrinhns in gc- 

4/, </ o/ 7^f fe #* Ckitdrrrr iff u- 
-* flfrflanJirtg in fitrlicttla^ thai they 
mty with more cafe acquaint then* 
wit h ike Truth according to the 
and wilh the 

by 5. Wwru, andJT, A!u " 
and are to behold at the 
Houfa. 1691 








I HIS is extracted from an address on the town of Westhampton, Massachusetts, delivered 
before the New England Historic Genealogical Society on Dec. 4, 1878, and printed 
in Barnard's Journal of Education in 1880. 



I HOLD in my hand a very small book, which perhaps some of 
you, in all your researches through the large libraries in this 
country and in Europe, have never discovered. I know not 
who compiled it, but it has done more to form the New England char- 
acter than any book except the Bible. Allow me, then, to intro- 
duce you to the " New England Primer." Here we have, among 
many other things, this important information : 

"In Adams's fall 
We sinned all." 

" The cat doth play, 
And after slay." 

" The dog doth bite 
The thief at night" 

and so on. Here is also a picture of John Rogers, burning at the 
stake in Smithfield, in 1554, and " his wife and nine small children, 
and one at the breast," looking on. Does that mean that he had 
nine children or ten ? I have stumbled, then, upon two unsettled 
historical questions : one is, Who compiled the New England Primer ? 
and the other is, How many children did 'John Rogers have ? We 
are in the habit of settling such questions here, but we have not time 
to settle those now. 



Clarke on 

The Cate- 

Notice of 



and Arrange- 

The " Primer " which was used in Westhampton was a square 
book. It was not in this oblong, modern form. This book, there- 
fore, does not look to me quite orthodox outside ; but I have no 
doubt it is orthodox inside^ for it contains the Catechism. The 
Catechism, as we studied and recited it, was divided into three parts. 
The first part comprehended all between, " What is the chief end 
of man ? " and " the First Commandment." The second embraced 
all the " Commandments," together with " What is required ? " and 
" What is forbidden ? " in them all, and " The reasons annexed for 
observing them." The third included all from the question, " Is 
any man able perfectly to keep the commandments of God ? " to 
the end. The Catechism was required, by the public sentiment of 
the town, to be perfectly committed to memory, and recited in the 
meeting house by all the children and youth between the ages of 
eight and fifteen. These public recitations were held on three dif- 
ferent Sabbaths in the summer of every year, with perhaps a fort- 
night intervening between each of them, to allow sufficient time for 
the children to commit to memory the division assigned. 

When the time arrived for commencing the exercise, the excite- 
ment was tremendous. As the great battle of Trafalgar was about 
to begin between the immense armadas of England and France, Lord 
Nelson displayed at the masthead of his flagship, " The Victory," 
the exciting proclamation, streaming in the wind, " ENGLAND 
proclamation woke all the national enthusiasm of his officers and 
men, and strung every nerve for the awful conflict. Scarcely less 
imperative and exciting was the annual announcement by Father 
Hale : " Sabbath after next, the first division of the Catechism will be 
recited here." It sent a thrill through the town. 

There was " no discharge in that war." Public sentiment de- 
manded the most implicit obedience by all concerned. The old 
Primers were looked up, new ones bought, and the parents set their 

Saying the Catechism 279 

children to the work at once and in earnest. Every question and 
every answer must be most thoroughly committed to memory, ver- 
batim, et literatim et punctuatim. The time for recitation was at the 
close of the afternoon service. All the children in the town, dressed 
in their " Sabbaday clothes," were arranged shoulder to shoulder, 
the boys on the one side and the girls on the other of the broad 
aisle, beginning at the " deacon's seat " beneath the pulpit, and ex- 
tending down that aisle, and round through the side aisles as far as 
was necessary. The parents " children of a larger growth " 
crowded the pews and galleries, trembling, anxious that their little 
ones might acquit themselves well. Many a mother bent over that 
scene with a solemn interest, handkerchief in hand, the tears of joy 
ready to fall if their children should succeed, and tears of sorrow if 
they should happen to fail. It was a spectacle worthy of a painter. 
Father Hale, standing in the pulpit, put out the questions to the 
children in order ; and each one, when the question came to him, Manner and 
was expected to wheel out of the line, a la militaire, into the broad 
aisle, and face the minister, and make his best obeisance, and answer 
the question put to him without the slightest mistake. To be told, 
that is, to be prompted or corrected by the minister, was a thing not to 
be permitted by any child who expected thereafter to have any rep- 
utation in that town for good scholarship. In this manner the three 
divisions of the Catechism were successively recited, while many 
were the " knees which smote one against another " ; and many 
were the persons who recollect, and will long recollect, the palpitat- 
ing heart, the tremulous voice, the quivering frame, with which for 
several years they went through that terrible ordeal. But, if the 
nervous effects of that exercise were appalling, the moral influence 
was most salutary ; and I desire, in this presence, to acknowledge 
my deep obligations to my parents, who long since, as I trust, 
" passed into the skies," for their fidelity in requiring me, much 
against my will, to commit to memory the Assembly's Catechism, 


Clarke on 

of the 

and to " say " it six or seven years in succession in the old meeting 
house in Westhampton, amid tremblings and agitations I can never 
cease to remember. 

But this was not all. The Catechism formed a part of the 
curriculum of all the common schools in that town for half a 
century, and was as thoroughly taught and as regularly recited there 
as Webster's spelling book or Murray's English Grammar. It was 
as truly a classic as any other book. It was taught everywhere in 
the family, in the school, and in the church, indeed it was the princi- 
pal intellectual and religious pabulum of the people. We had it 
for breakfast, and we had it for dinner, and we had it for supper. 
The entire town was saturated with its doctrines, and it is almost 
as much so at the present day. The people could not, of course, 
descend into the profound depths of the metaphysics of theology, 
but they thoroughly understood the system which was held by the 
fathers in New England. They were not indeed prepared to 


" Reason high 

of Providence, foreknowledge, ivi/l and fate, 
Fixed fate, free <will, foreknowledge absolute-" 

but they so clearly apprehended what they believed to be the truths 
of the Bible, 

" That to the height of this great argument 
They could assert Eternal Providence, 
And justify the ways of God to men.'"'' 

The practice of instructing the children thoroughly in the 
Catechism, was very general throughout New England for a 
century and a half after the arrival of " The Mayflower." Judge 
Sewall, in the first volume of his " Diary," just published by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, speaks of a certain Sabbath, 
which, in the Old South Church in this city, was called " The 
Catechising Day" and of his wearing a new article of clothing in 

Saying the Catechism 281 

honor of that specially important custom. But I believe that that 
excellent practice was nowhere so thoroughly carried out as it was 
in Western Massachusetts. That was largely owing to the tran- 
scendent influence of 'Jonathan Edwards, clarum et venerabile nomen, 
who was looked up to by the ministers in Boston and Scotland as 
the oracle in all metaphysical and theological matters. His influence 
in Northampton and Stockbridge, and in the regions round about, is 
visible to-day in the peculiar moral and religious grain of the people. 
This, ladies and gentlemen, was the way the New England character 
was formed. 









THE interest in the following leaves, (which are all of those in the original little tract 
containing cuts, with the addition of the title and preface) is two-fold. Not merely 
is the poem from the pen of Benjamin Harris, but the prints are identical with those 
of the New England Primer, and as this edition was probably issued in Boston by Benjamin 
Harris, Jr., the illustrations are thus the earliest American prototypes of the rhymed-alphabet 
cuts yet known. The only known copy of this edition is in the Lenox Library. 

The first record of the poem the editor has found is contained in an advertisement at the 
back of Harris' edition of Davenport's " Saint's Anchor hold" (London, 1701 ) where it is 
referred to as " The Holy B'ble in Verse, Containing the Old and New Testament, with the 
Apocripha. The whole containing above One Thousand Lines, with Cuts. Price bound 
3d." The edition of 1717 contains an advertisement dated 1712 and signed by Benjamin 
Harris, Jr., in which he refers to a pirated edition from the press of William Bradford, already 
issued. In the Advocates Library at Edinburgh is a copy with the title: " The / Holy Bible, / 
Containing / the Old & New / Testaments, / with the / Apocrypha. / Done into Verse for 
the Benefit of/ weak memories. The whole con- / taining above One Thousand Lines / 
[ornament] / Edinburgh : / Printed in the year M DCC xxiv. / " The advertisement of 
Fleet reproduced in this volume also mentions an edition of the poem selling by that printer in 
1751. Thus it is apparent that at least six editions have been issued. 




In Verfe. 




WHoe'er thou ?rt, or of what 
Perfuafion foe\>er, forely 
thou Jlafl foaie fecret R-efpccft 
/AC every thing which favours of 
xlie Oracles of Godi Lo, here 
)hou ha$l a Smell of that Garden 
of Spices, would to God ic might 
ravifli thy Heart,- fo far as to 
drive thee every Morning to 
pluck a Flower there- from ! 
krififan, read ic with Gravity, 
zod you'll find it an excellent 
antidote aqainil: a weak Me- 
mory. That, you m-ay^ turn 
(fyejcr.m. and vua oftner to its fa- 
cred Origraal, is the Prayer of 


"pHis boolc c^nt.tias ^ fulh} on 
* Of G'o.-J t^'m't^btj's wife Crcater>n> 
Who by his Power in fix Days 

~l1)t F.trtt) did frjniC it'i.l h'.%tv*/z raifs 

Now ParaJice is planted and ' 
c^.?j/> is made c' enjoy eke land* 
)-ovr Qpd) bec^uie he was alone, 
Made hhn a lltlf-mtet of his bone 
Who is dccsiv'U. O vorfb of all 
F/ow ivlxncc df'lv'd >WM'J foilRS 
lUtt yet J>_y IJwfit ' rtuf decreed. 
Jefits/6waW pay forMitiS m>.,-d 


and his Blood, 

I'o ^c for veng'Ance crys aloud, 
Ry whom he's curled &r srr.'i' 
Upon the Earth a Fi;gttivc 


The Holy Bible; 

Ani Saul thro 1 feeking ^ffes fped> 
Far bener (?y 4 crowned 

Jbe Losl doth ( 

David tb( Sun of }fdk ;' tnointi 
Gollah &i<b " wighlj Hoft, 
Ovtr //;i?.Ifra'lttes dath boafl 
But DiVld tvilD i Slii!/ anrt Sto/ie 
great Goliah tumble down, 
envies D&Vld-tinA iiii VSUl, 
'ib fury feeks \ni BlooJ to fpi)|. 
$> toll's hatred on> camel eft ajfttc 

avidi/v^cry ^'* inc:-e<il>. 
hath pover ir. .the Cave 
y 1C. Stffc^-buC 2oth)tlm five 
The fbifyiHrs obtain the D^, 
And.-5^i2 and fon* in battle Hay. 

Divid a LarnrntAtion 
Doth males o'er -SW &: 


Epitomized in Verfei 

He's crowned king, & up he g 
To Ifrtro/i there to fight his foes. 
The Phtlifune* ^ d MoatUes, 
He does fubdue r & Syria fmires 
"Before the Ark he dances, when 
Wirh fhowts it n.f rcftorM again 
Then Dw* gets the viclory 
O'er H'u : s wretched villany : 

On B4ii/Jffeh!eAlU his Eyes, 
And flic's to Luft a fXerifise r 
Anct For to hide thisfinful 
Caufcs Vwlj ,ta ks flain. 
Whereat th' Aimight^iHf 
Jrt order thAt he might Repent. 
To Ro-a.1 DuvU's born, a Soil 
Of.&tt&J&fbt lUtn'd Silvmon. 
Aitd Ri!>6^Vs taken by "him when 
Ifc iorturb the City's Men, 


Tie Holy Bible, 

And ufofaicm doth *Afnnon kill, 
For forcing Tamar 'gainft her will 
For which offence Jo&l> does bring 
The Murderer before the King, 
V/here ail is hufhr, yet <Abfrlom 
Doth at hisFatbec'-s kingdom aim 
But as he hung in th'tefc bys Hair* 
He killed was by Jo.ifrs Spear. 
The News was foon to D^Wii lent 
And bitterly he does Lament, 
David tiie people numbreth ; and 
The flaguc increjfetb in ibc Land, 
Kinds' I. II. 

K. DJV^ di & leaves the Throne 
Unto the Wife King Solomon , 
"Who's very rich & weaUbygtovrn 
Moft wifely Judgment parfcs on 



Epkomiz-'d in Verfe. 

But flic refufes to be fcn, 
A nd Bfthar thereupon'* made 
A Plot's contriv'd againft tht King 
Which Mordecni to li&ht doth bring* 
But fliwian by the King's advanc'<i 
Who feelts revenge they<rw* aeainft 
And for which ac\ he does obtain, 
King's Decree to hxve '(rn 

Yet Mordtral to E/Jfccx faff?, 
Who begs the king toftve thf J!? 995 
Ac which proud Hamttn's bafe de- 
JReverfed is immediately ( cree 
And Hairum hang'd,v/hUft MarZtca.i 
Is cloathcd iu the King's array. 


The Holy Bible, 

This Boo* doth patient Jd> Tot forth 
la his religious Life and Worth 
.How Satan docs thro' Calumny 
lindeavour him to vilify. 
To dmn'd JecfH the Monfler flic?, 
And impudence doth him difguife 
Affiong God's fons his belllfh S^cj, 
Prefents it felf a certain Day, 
Jehovah's all difeerning fight._ 
Seen faw th' Etoinal Fiend of nighf, 
Knm- all bit Progreffthro' this Globe, 
And that his env/ fwcll'd at 7b?>. 
Gays him Commiflion to rnolefr, 
And try to ftorm his ftactfulSreaji ; 
Wben quick btffto mere fvjift : ' 
We cerpetrte what he'd 


EpitomizM in Vetie. 

For all that Man doth here inherit 
Will only ferve to vex his fpirit. 

He bids the Kutb rejyct, but kno 
To Judgment he mnft come allc. 
And in conclafion bids man to 
Fear God tfJ birCammandtntntf d* 


This Love-tick Song of Salerno** 
To Jefus and his Church Belongs 
And in this hlffied Song we read 
Ho v Cbrjjl and''} Church are married. 
O LcfA unto thy Cbwfffi end thtf 
V/eddei my Soul JejirfS io bt> 
Th>s Song a Myftery is 
Whor<M<if it /rthttn. 


Tha's; Iteaih ^c ftrtf J&tfl ^rrV fee 


The Holy Bible. 


The Jews adrooni/hed are here 
Their S iviaur Jf u $ Chrift to fear 

And rcls 'era the old Law is g0ne 
Thro' Jefus Chrift God's onl 


T . . , mtt. ( Son 

U i? not well, fays yp/ therefore, 
To love the rich & hate the poor? 

ffttr I, II. 

Hd them exhorts the Lord to fear 
And (ays 5* judgment daj w near., 

i, ii, in. 

thrift's Perfon bt defcrlbef, & &OWS ; 
His death, & how from it he rofc, 
Exhorts to prfevere in Love, 
Commanding them to God above 


Epitomized in 

nih they over-board do hale 
Where he's/Wa/Wd by a Whale. 

Thret days and n'^hit hr doth renvain, 
Therein when he is freed again, 
And then to Nineveh he went, 
Where at his word they all repent 
[ If this thy Prophet wu/KO Lord 
To ilo thy will be thereto fputnd 
What will become of ftubborn me 
Wn.o-s ten times far more dull than 
Spur me OLord.fcaf letm*- find Che 
As thou art jufi:,thou'rtrf/ro kind 


In Micha's Prophecy we Pet 
God's wrath againft idolatry. 
Princes are cruel, Prophets *H 
To vanity and falffiood fall, 
Thebirrh of Chrift is prophecy'd 
His kingdom co^queft over pride 








(*} \Si('-fjt*"i 

t*J^W (JfJ t*2 


QUITE a number of the following editions are undated, but so far as I have been able to 
form any conclusion, all these fall within the decade 17901799. For convenience 
therefore, I have grouped them all together at the end of the dated editions. 
As of some interest, there is appended to this list of Primers actually extant, such adver- 
tisements or other mention of editions as have been chanced upon. Possibly certain of these 
notices may not allude to the New England Primer, but the probabilities are that they do. 





For fhe more eafy amj fi g the trueJ 
--'-- *t ENGLISH 

g To which w added, 
The AHembly of Divines 

te Catechifm. 

S- . 

r, p r!fltrf by y 
and Sold by the bookM S , 



THE / New-England / Primer / Enlarged. / For the more 
easy attaining / the true Reading of English / To which is Boston, 1727 
added, / The Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / Boston : Printed 
by S. Kneeland, & / T. Green, Sold by the Booksellers. 1727. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 

*** Copies : Lenox Library, New York. This is the earliest edition extant, the only 
known copy of which is the property of the Lenox Library. It is imperfect, lacking the 
leaves Ai, Bz, 63, and E8, though a small part of E^ remains. 

The / New-England / Primer / Enlarged. / For the more easy 
attaining the true / Reading of English. / To which is added, / Boston, 
The Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / Boston : Printed by T. 
Fleet, / and Sold by the booksellers, 1737. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 

.,.*. Copies : Collection of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt. A very imperfect copy of 
what is either this or the following edition is in the collection of Dr. Henry Barnard, 
being a fragment of twenty-three leaves of signatures B, C and D. 

The / New-England / Primer / Enlarged. / For the more 
easy attaining the true / Reading of English. / To which is Boston, 
added, / The Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / Boston: 
Printed by T. Fleet, / and Sold by the booksellers, 1738. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
# * # Copies : Collection of Mr. E. Dwight Church, New York. 

3 o o Bibliography 

The New-England Primer . . . To which is added, The Assem- 
Boston, 1761 bly of Divines, and Mr. Cotton's Catechism. Boston: Printed by 
-"^~'* r ^-3 D. and J. Kneeland, opposite to the Prison in Queen Street, for J. 
Winter, opposite the King's Arms in Union Street. 1761. 

3*jj. Title from Sabin's " Dictionary of Books relating to America." 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more 
Boston, 1762 easy attaining the true / Reading of English. / To which is 
-x^~|T"v fc 3 added, / The Assembly of Divines, / and Mr. Cotton's / Cate- 
chism. / Boston : Printed and Sold by / S. Adams, in Queen- 
street. 1762. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
# *j|; Copies : Collection of Mr. E. Dwight Church, New York. 

The / New-England / Primer / improved, / For the more 
London, 1767 easy attaining the / true Reading of English. / To which is 
_^-~|r->^j added, / The Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / London : 
/ Printed in the Year M.DCC.LXVII. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights 
#*# Copies : Lenox Library, New York. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more 
Boston, 1768 eas 7 attaining the / true reading of English. / To which is added, / 
t^-^-^^ The Assembly of Di- / vines, and Mr. Cot-/ton's Catechism. / 

Boston : Printed for, and Sold / by John Perkins, in Union Street. / 


40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
#*)(. Copies : Collection of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York. 

The New England Primer. . . Boston : Printed for and sold by 
Boston, 1768 A. Barclay in Cornhill. 1768. 

5,5*33. Title from catalogue slip. 



For the more eafy attaining the 

Reading of English. < 


To which Is added, 
The Afiembly of Divines, 
and Mr. COTTON'S # 

| Catechifm* | 


O 5 r N; Prlflled and Sold by > 
S.ADAM$,1n ^ueen-Jlreet. 1761, 


Bibliography 301 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more 
easy attaining the / true reading of English. / To which is added / Boston, 1770 
The Assembly of Di- / vines, and Mr. Cot- / ton's Catechism. / ^~~^+-J 
Boston : Printed and Sold by / John Boyles, in Marlboro' / Street, 


40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
3* Copies : Woburn Public Library. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved / for the more easy 

attaining the true / reading of English. / To which is added, / The Boston, 1771 

assembly of Divines / and Mr. Cottons Ca-/techism. / Boston : / -Ojrxo 
Printed and sold by the Printer and / Booksellers, 1771. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 

#*x Copies : Sheldon Art Museum, Middlebury, Vt. 


The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more 
easy attaining the / true Reading of English. / To which is Boston, 1770 
added, / The Assembly of Divines / Catechism, &c. / Boston : "~<J>~ > >^ 
Printed and Sold by William / McAlpine, about Mid-way be- 
tween / the Governor's and Dr. Gardiner's in / Marlborough- 
Street, 1770. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 

%*# Copies : Collection of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York ; collection of Dr. 
Henry Barnard, Hartford. 

The / New-England / Primer / Enlarged. / For the more 
easy attaining the true / Reading of English. / To which is Philadelphia 
added, / The Assembly's Catechism. / Philadelphia : / Printed 
and Sold by D. Hall and W. Sellers, in Market-Street, 1771. 

80 pp. 

.*. Title from Hildeburn's " Issues of the Pennsylvania Press." 



The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more easy 
Boston, 7777 attaining the true / reading of English. / To which is added, / The 
t-^~JT~*++9 Assembly of Divines, / and Mr. Cotton's Ca- / techism. / Bos- 
ton : Printed for Thomas Leverett in Corn-hill. 1771. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
%.*# Copies : Collection of Bishop J. F. Hurst, Washington. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more easy 

London, 7777 attaining the / true Reading of English / To which is added, / The 

* ^"V' S 'O Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / London : Printed in the year 


40 leaves, A-E in eights. 

* # Copies : Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more easy 
Boston, 777j> attaining the true / reading of English. / To which is added / The 
Assembly of Divines, / and Mr. Cotton's Ca- / techism. / Bos- 
ton : Printed for, and sold by A. Ellison, / in Seven-Star Lane. 


40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
$*,,. Title from Sabin's "Dictionary of Books relating to America." 


The New-England / Primer / Improved ; / For the more easy 
attaining the / true Reading of English / To which is added, / The 
Assembly of Divines / and Mr. Cotton's / Catechism. / Provi- 
dence : / Printed and Sold by John / Waterman, at the Paper- / 
Mills, 1775. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
** # Copies : Lenox Library, New York ; Collection of Dr. Henry Barnard, Hartford. 

The / American / Primer / Improved. / For the more easy 
Concord,i^j6 attaining the true / reading of English. / To which is added, / The 
Assembly of Divines, /and / Mr. Cotton's Catechism, / Concord: 



A M E K I C A N 




, P R I M E R ! 

1 M P R O V E L\ 
4 FOR the more frai'v a:.;i: >.;T rfce t ru" 4 

A p " * Y 

X reao.n^ t-t L-..-^!-!j,. x 

* TJ w i c . is .-, ;, .^ t - p, j 

V 'i'hc Atfcmbly cf Divides, 

' X A >,- ^ . .- , 

. $ Mr. COTTON'^ Catcchi^a 

N C 

f a t'tt r tD 

R l 


Bibliography 303 

/ Printed and sold by / N. Coverly by the Groze, Dozen / or 
Single. A great Allowance to / Country Shop Keepers. 1776. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
.* Copies : Collection of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York. 

The / New-England / Primer / improved. / For the more easy 

attaining the true / reading of English. / To which is added, / The Hartford 

Assembly of Divines / and / Mr. Cotton's Catechism. / Hartford: J 777 

/ Printed and Sold by Nathaniel / Patten, 1777. * "ir^x^j 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
#*x Copies : Lenox Library, New York. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved / For the more easy 
attaining the true / reading of English. / To which is added / The Boston, 7777 
Assembly of Divines, and / Mr. Cotton's Catechism. / Boston : / 
Printed by Edward Draper, at / his Printing-Office, in Newbury- / 
Street, and Sold by John Boyle / in Marlborough-Street. I777 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 


Copies : Collection of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York. 

The / New-England / Primer / improved / For the more easy 
attaining the true / Reading of English. / To which is added, / The Paisley, 
Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / Paisley : / Printed by Alex. 
Weir, Bookseller / MDCCLXXXI. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
# * # Copies : Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved. / For the more easy 
attaining the true read- / ing of English. / To which is added, / The Boston, 1781 
Assembly of Divines / and / Mr. Cotton's / Catechism./ Boston: 
/ Printed and Sold by John D. M'Dou- / gall and Company. 1781. 

36 leaves, A-I in fours. 
.*.); Copies : Collection of Dr. Henry Barnard, Hartford. 

304 Bibliography 

The New-England Primer Improved . . . Boston : Printed and 
Boston, 1/84 sold by the booksellers, 1784. 

*-*" * ^""^ 32, leaves, A-D in eights. 

.j.*.j. Title from " Catalogue of the Library of George Brinley." 

The / New-England / Primer, Improved / For the more 
Glasgow, 1784 easy attaining the true reading of English. / To which is added, / 
t-^n|r^vj The Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / Glasgow : Printed by 
Robert Duncan. 1784. 

x*^ Title from Sabin's " Dictionary of Books relating to America." 

The / New-England Primer / Improved : / Or, an easy and 
Salem, 1784 pleasant / Guide to the Art of Reading. / To which are added, / 
-*^n|r>^5 The Assembly of Divines / and Mr. Cotton's / Catechisms / 

Salem : Printed and sold by S. Hall, near the / Court-House 


32 leaves, A-D in eights. 
.fc*35. Copies : Collection of Bishop J. F. Hurst, Washington. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved, / For the more 
Glasgow, rySs easy attaining the true / Reading of English. / To which is 
c^-Jlf^s added, / The Assembly of Divines' / Catechism. / Glasgow : / 

Printed by David Niven; / For J. and W. Shaw, Booksellers, 

Trongate. / MDCCLXXXV. 

80 pp., A-E in eights. 
%.*# Copies : Collection of Mr. E. G. Kean, Warwick, Pa. 

The / New-England / Primer / Improved / For the more 
Boston, 1791 easy attaining the / true Reading of English. / Adorned with Cutts. 
To which is added, / The Assembly of Divines / Catechism / 

Bibliography 305 

Boston : / Printed by Joseph Bumstead, / for David West, in 
Marlboro' Street / MDCCXCI. 

32 leaves, A-D in eights. 
#*# Copies : Collection of Bishop J. F. Hurst, Washington. 

The / New-England / Primer / improved. / For the more 
easy attaining / the true reading of English. / To / which is Boston, 
added, / The Assembly of Divines' / Catechism. / Boston : 
Printed and Sold / by Nathaniel Coverly / M DCCXCI. 

32 leaves, A-D in eights. 
* Copies : Lenox Library, New York 

The / New-England / Primer / improved, / For the more 
easy attaining the true reading / of English / To which is added, / Nenv York 
The Assembly of Divines / Catechism. / New York : Printed by f 794 
G. Forman [. . . and ?] / Robert Macgill Book Seller, / No. 
105 Maiden Lane. 1794. 

Not signatured, 64 numbered pages, and some lacking. 
y.*# Copies : Collection of Bishop J. F. Hurst, Washington. 

The / New England / Primer,/ Enlarged and Improved:/ 
or, an easy and pleasant / Guide to the Art of Reading. / Adorned Boston, 
with Cuts. / Also the / Catechism. / Printed at Boston, by 
Thomas Hall : / Sold by him, and at the several Booksellers in / 
town. 1795- 

32 leaves, A-H in fours. 

.* Copies : Lenox Library, New York ; American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 

The / New-England / Primer, / much enlarged, / and better 

adapted to the use of / Children. / To which is added / The as- 

3 o 6 Bibliography 

sembly's Catechism. / Lancaster. / Printed and Sold by W. & R. / 
Dickson, in King Street / 1796. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
^.*^. Copies : Collection of Judge Samuel W. Pennypacker, Philadelphia. 

The / New-England Primer j / much improved. / Containing, / 
Philadelphia A Variety of easy Lessons, / for / Attaining the true reading of 
*797 English. / Philadelphia : / Printed by T. Dobson, at the Stone / 

* T^**-* House, No. 41, S. second street. / 1797. 

40 leaves, A-B in twelves, C-D in eights. 
%*# Copies : Collection of Dr. Henry Barnard, Hartford. 

The / American / Primer. / Or, an easy and pleasant Guide 
Medford,i?98\.o the / Art of Reading / Adorned with Cuts. / To which is 
'~~^^> added, / The Assembly of Divine's / Catechism / Medford : / 
Printed and sold by Nathaniel / Coverly Jun'r 1798. 

32. leaves, A-D in eights. 
^* s Copies : American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 

The / New-England / Primer, / Or, an easy and pleasant / 
Boston: White Guide to the Art of Reading. / Adorn'd with cutts. / To which are 
^^~^T^-^ added, / The Assembly of Divines' / Catechism. / Boston: Printed 
and sold by / J. White, near Charles-River / Bridge. 

48 leaves, A-F in eights. 

#*# Copies : Brown University Library, Providence, R. I. 5 collection of Bishop J. 
F. Hurst, Washington. 

The / New-England / Primer / Enlarged : / Or, an easy and 
Boston: Fleet pleasant / Guide to the Art of Reading. / Adorn'd with Cuts. / 
To which are added, / The Assembly of Divines / and Mr. 


'OtV&x eafy ctod ph a/ant 
OE to tfa ART 

7* <.&&!<& -aft added, 


.--Primed and fod by 
] WHITE, near Charles-River 

|51 --- * -Q -- < ; 





(,*, AS lAlST AND fitAiANT 

the Art of Reading, 




- *' ft t- ft t P A 

. *ix tiu> *M> . . v JOHN V 


Bibliography 307 

Cotton's / Catechism &c. / Boston : / Printed by T. and J. Fleet, 
at the / Bible & Heart in Cornhill. 

48 leaves, A-F in eights. 
# * % Copies : Collection of Mr. Edward L. Parris, New York. 

The New-England / Primer, / Improved : / Or, an easy and 
pleasant / Guide to the Art of Reading. / Adorned with Cutts. / Portsmouth 
To which are added, / The Assembly of Divines / and Dr. Watts's Melcber 
/ Catechisms. / Portsmouth : / Printed and sold by J. Melcher. * '~*~^* 

36 leaves, A-C in twelves. 
^*^ Copies: Collection of Dr. Henry Barnard, Hartford. 

The / American / Primer, / Improved, / Or, an easy and pleas- 
ant Guide to the / Art of Reading, / Adorned with cuts, / To Newbury 
which is added, / The Assembly of Divine's / Catechism. / New- Coverly 
bury, (Ver.) / Printed by Nathaniel Coverly, Jun'r. / For John * "*^ > 
West, of Boston. 

32 leaves, unpaged and unsignatured. 
x*^ Copies : American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 

The / New England / Primer / Enlarged and Improved / or, an 

easy and pleasant / Guide to the Art of Reading. / Adorned with Newburyport 

Cuts. / Also the / Catechism. / Newburyport : / Printed and sold Mycall 

by John Mycall ; / sold also by Isaiah Thomas at / his shops in '""V^J 
Boston and Worcester. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 

**. Copies : British Museum Library, London ; American Antiquarian Society, Wor- 
cester, Mass. ; collection of Bishop J. F. Hurst, Washington. 

The / New-England / Primer, / Enlarged and improved, / or, an 

easy and pleasant / Guide to the Art of Reading. / Adorned with 



cuts. / Also the / Catechism. / Newburyport : / Printed and sold 
by John Mycall. 

40 leaves, A-E in eights. 
#* Copies : Collection of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York. 


" ADVERTISEMENT. There is now in the Press, and will sud- 
Harris, 1690 denly be extant, a Second Impression of The New-England Primer 
enlarged, to which is added, more Directions for Spelling : the Prayer 
of K. Edward the 6th and Verses made by Mr. Rogers the Martyr, 
left as a Legacy to his Children. Sold by Benjamin Harris, at the 
London Coffee-House in Boston." From Henry Newman s u News 
From the Stars" Boston : 

Perry, 1700 

" 12 Strongs Spelling bookes; 20 Youngs Spelling bookes; 13 
Bibles in 12 gilt, N: E. Psalms; 28 Primmers; 13 doz Assem- 
blys Catechism ; 2 doz gilt home bookes ; I doz plain do. ; 44 
doz Primmers; 106 doz Assemblys Catechism." From Inventory of 
Michael Perry, 1700. 'John Dunton's u Letters from New Eng- 

" Books Printed and Sold by B. Harris at the Golden Boar's- 
Harris, 1701 Head in Grace-church St. The New England Primer Enlarged ; 
^"~$~" 1 >-3 For the more easy attaining the true Reading of English. To 

which is added Milk for Babes." Advertisement in Davenport's 

" Saints Anchor Hold" London : 1701. 

" A Primer for the colony of Connecticut ; or, an Introduction 
Green, 1715 to the true Reading of English. To which is added, Milk for 
Babes." Advertisement of T. Green, New London : 

Bibliography 309 

" James Franklin, Printer, is remov'd from Queen Street, to 
Union Street, over against Mr. Dixwell's, Goldsmith, and sells Tes- Franklin 
taments, Psalters, Psalm-Books, Primers, Catechisms, and all sorts X 7 2 4 
of Blanks." From " The New England Courant" Monday, July 27, -"'~i|r\> 


" Bonds, Indentures, Primmers, or other useful books." Adver- 
tisement ofj. Keimer in " New Jersey Acts" 1728. Keimer, 1728 

Lately imported from London, by John Le, and are to be sold 
by him at the loweft Prices, either by wholesale or Retale, at his Le, 
Shop in Market Street, over againft the Presbyterian Meeting-Houfe, 
thefe Goods following, 

Callicoes, divers Sorts. Hollands, and feveral forts of Sheeting 
Linnen. Several forts of Diapers and Table-Cloths. Several forts 
of Cambricks. Mantua Silks, and Graffets. Beryllan, and plain 
Callimanco. Tamie yard-wide. Men's dyed Shammie Gloves, 
Women's Ditto, Lamb, Stitching Silk, Thread and Silk. Twift for 
women. Silk and Ribbands, Double Thread Stockings, Men's 
white fhammie Gloves, Silk Handkerchiefs, other sorts of Hand- 
kerchiefs. Men's glaz'd Gloves Topp'd. Men's Shoe- Buckles, 
Bath-metal. Masks for Women. Several forts of Penknives. 
Plain metal Buttons for Men's Coats and jackets. Ivory Cafe- 
Knives, and feveral forts of Pocket-Knives, Dowlafles feveral 
forts, Huckabags, and Ruflia Linnen, Oznaburghs. Several forts 
of Looking-GlafTes, Garlicks and brown Holland. Bag-Hol- 
land Ditto. Several forts of Druggets, Fine Kerfeys. Superfine 
double-mill'd Drab, Broad-Cloths, London Shalloons, Fine and 
coarfe Hats, Men and Women's Engliih Shoes, Stockings, Several 
forts for Men, Women and Children, Several forts of Caps, 
Women's Bonnets. Several forts of Horn and Ivory Combs. Gun- 
powder, shot, and Flints. Bibles of feveral forts. Teftaments, Pfalters 
and Primers. Large Paper Books, and fmall ones, with Pocket-Books, 





and other stationary Ware, Several forts of Checquer'd Linnen, 
Flannels and Duroys, Scots-Snuff. 

To be LET by the above Perfon, One Half of the House he 
now poffeffeth. Enquire of him and know further. Pennsylvania 
Gazette, Oct. 2, 1729. 

JOHN HYNDSHAW, at the sign of the Two Bibles, in 
Market-Street, over against the Presbyterian Meeting-House, Phila- 
delphia binds any fort of Books after any Fashion People may defire, 
and more perfectly, and cheaper, than formerly hath been done in 
thefe Parts. And he fells at the loweft Prices Folio Bibles with 
Maps and the Concordance, Quarto Bibles, fmall Bibles, Teftaments 
Pfalters, Primers, with Variety of other Books : And feveral Sorts of 
blank Books for accounts, Pocket-Books, Copy-books. Alfo Station- 
ary Ware, fuch as Paper, Ink, Sealing-wax, Wafers, Ink-horns, 
Standifhes for Counters, Pencils, Spectacles and Cafes ; and Sundry 
Sorts of Merchant Goods, lately imported from Great Britain, with 
a Book entituled Bradley's Gentleman and Farmer's Guide, abridged, 
for the Increase and Improvement of Cattle, &c. April 30, 1730. 
From Pennsylvania Gazette, April p, //JO. 

11 Sold by the Printer hereof. Large Quarto Bibles of Good 
Print, Small Bibles, Testaments, Psalters, Primers, Account Books, 
demi-royal and small Paper, Ink, Ink-powder, Dutch Quills, 
Wafers, New Version of Psalms, Barclay's Apology, Beavan's 
Primitive Christianity, Vade Mecum, Aristotle's Works, with several 
other diverting and entertaining Histories. Also all sorts of Blanks 
in the most Authentick Forms, and correctly printed." Advertise- 
ment In Benjamin Franklin's " Poor Richard's Almanac" for 1 735* 

At the House of George Brownell in Second Street, (formerly 
the Houfe of Mr. John Knight, deceaPd) is taught, Reading, 

Bibliography 311 

Writing, Cyphering : Dancing, Plain- work, Marking, with Variety of Bro<wnell 
Needlework. Where alfo Scholars may board. 

N. B. At the same place is to be fold a new one.Horfe 
Chaife, alfo dry Fifh, Mackrel, Glew, cut Whale-bone, Rhode- 
Uland Cheese, Onions, Cedar Buckets, Raifms, Currants, Iron Potts, 
Kettles, Primers, Pfalters, Teftaments, Bibles, Writing Books, 
Henry on the Sacrament, and feveral other Books, red Leather for 
Chairs or Shoes, &c. faling Axes, Sieves, Hops, Fringes, and Kid 
Gloves. From the Pennsylvania Gazette, Jan. 22, 

" Daniel Gookin, Bookseller in Boston, Is removed from the 
Corner of Water street in Cornhil, to a shop in Marlborough street, Parker, 174.4 
opposite to the Old-South Meeting-House, where he continues to 
sell most sorts of Divinity Books, by the best English and Scotch 
authors ; also Bibles, Testaments, Psalms, Psalm Books, Primers, 
Account Books, and Books for Records, Papers, with most sorts of 
Stationery and Cutlery ware." Advertisement from " The Boston 
Evening Post" November />, 

"Just imported from London, and to be Sold by the Printer here- 
of, Bibles of several sorts, Testaments, Psalters and Primers." Ad- Gookin, 
vertisement from the " New York Weekly Post-Boy" Printed by Barnes 
Parker, December 2 


Books sold by Robert M'Alpine . . . Bibles of several sizes, 
Testaments, Psalters, Spelling-Books, Common Prayers, and Primers. M" Alpine 
. . . and many other books too tedious to mention." Advertisement 
from " The New York Weekly Post-Boy " December 2, 1745. 


Just published, the New York Primer, And to be sold by the 
Printer hereof, by the Whole Sale or Retail." Advertisement from Foreest, 77^7 
" The New York Evening Post" Printed by Henry de Foreest Sept. 7, 


3 i 2 Bibliography 

" Just imported from England and to be sold by the Printer 
Parker, 1748 hereof . . . Church of England Primers, New England Primers . . . 
*-~^~JT^-3 Horn Books . . ." Advertisement in " The New York Gazette" 
Printed by "James Parker, July 2$, 1748. 

" To be sold by Thomas Fleet, Printer, at the Heart and Crown 
Fleet, 7757 In Cornhill, Boston, Bibles, Testaments, Psalters, Psalm-Books, 
t ^jT^iJ Primers, Catechisms with Proofs or without." Advertisement in 
Wiggleworttf $ " Day of Doom" Boston, 1751. 

" H. Gaine, at the Bible & Crown, in Queen-Street, has just 
Gaine, f?j6 imported in the Snow Irene, Captain Jacobson, from London, the 
^*O(r*>w3 following Books, viz. . . . Bibles, Testaments, Common-Prayers 
of all Sizes, Psalters, Primmers. Several sorts of School Books; 
good assortment of Plays, Letter Cases, Writing Paper, &c." Ad- 
vertisement In " The New York Mercury" Monday, "June 7, 1756. 

" The New-England Primer. Philadelphia : James Chattin. 
Chattin, 1757 1757." From Hildeburn s " Issues of the Press in Pennsylvania" 

" An edition of The New England Primer being wanted by the 
7757 booksellers, Z. Fowle consulted with Mecom on the subject, who 
consented to assist in the impression, on condition that he might 
print a certain number for himself. To this proposal Fowle con- 
sented, and made his contract with the booksellers. Fowle had no 
help but myself, then a lad in my eighth year. The impression 
consisted of ten thousand copies. The form was a small sixteens, 
on foolscap paper. The first form of the Primer being set up, 
while it was worked at the press, I was put to case to set the types 
for the second. Having completed this, and set up the whole cast 
of types employed in the work, and the first form being still at 
press, I was employed as a fly ; that is, to take ofF the sheets from 
the tympan as they were printed, and pile them in a heap ; this ex- 
pedited the work. While I was engaged in this business, I viewed 


To be fold by 

Thomas Fleet, Printer, 

a: the 

Heart and Crmn 

In Cornhill, Boften, 

2lBLES,TeJ}aments,Pfalters, Pfalm-Books, Princ 
Catecbifms with Proofs rtr without, Spelling- 
Bocks, by Dixcn, and others, Drelincourt'^ Cbrr/tian's 
Defence again/I the Fears of Death, Pilgrim's Progrefs-* 
firft and fecond Part, Perpetual Almanack of Spiritual 
Meditations, Secretary's Guide, Wigglefworth^; Day -of 
..Dcom, and a great Variety of other bound Books ; 
Watts's Divine Songs, for Children, Holy Bible? m 
Yerfg, Parents Gift, &c. 

Alfo Ink and Quits, Cartridge Paper, JFriting awl 

Printing Paper, Account Books, Bonds for Money, Gottn- 
ler Bonds t Sheriff's Bsruis, Powers of Attorney, Bills of 


Sale for Ve/cls, Deeds of Sale for Lavd, Jr.der,tu*e: 
Policies- for fafurance, and all-iiforts of Probate Bic:;; 
Court avd J'</iiefs Bltwk^. kc. -And at t/X ferns / 
aii $->!! of Printing f '>'' "?^v h } ad well tieve, < ... 



From Wiggle s^uorths' Day of Doom. Boston : 7/J/ 


Bibliography 313 

Mecom at the press with admiration. He indeed put on an apron 
to save his clothes from blacking, and guarded his ruffles ; but, he 
wore his coat, his wig, his hat and his gloves, whilst working at 
press ; and, at case, laid aside his apron." From Thomas' " History 
of Printing ." 

44 Just imported in the last vessels from London and Bristol, 
and to be sold by WRIGHT and YOUNG, at their store in the Wright & 
corner house opposite Doctor Murray's, near the Meat Market ; Young, 
. . . testaments, psalters, spelling-books, primers, shaded crewels, 
knitting needles, nutmegs, cloves, cinnamon and mace, small nails 
of all sorts, chest and dovetail hinges, sleeve buttons, shoe and knee 
buckles, fountain pens, pen knives, knives and forks, razors, scissors, 
coffee-mills, needles and pins, metal buttons of all sorts, double-gilt 
do, flat & deep pewter of all sorts, pewter tea-pots and tankards, 
&c. Also a great number of articles too tedious to mention here." 
From " The New York Mercury" Monday, July 18, 

"Primers sold from 1749 to 1765, be- 

ing 35,100 @ 2^ [;] 365 12 6 Franklin & 

" Money received for 2,000 primers print- Hall, j/oo 

ed between March, 1765 and February ist * ""^"^ 

1766 @ 2^ 20 16 8 " 
From Franklin and Hall's settlement accounts, Ij66. 

" W. M'Alpine hereby informs the Publick that he purchased 
the genuine copy of this Almanack from Dr. Ames, and hopes they M'Alpine 
will not be imposed upon by buying spurious, pirated and incorrect edi- 
tions of the same : At whose shop may be had Tate and Brady's 
Psalms, Watts' Psalms and Hymns, Bibles, Testaments, Prayer- 
books, Psalters, Spelling-books, Primers, Divinity and History- 
books, Paper, Pens, Ink, Ink-powder, Wax, Wafers, &c. &c. at 
the very lowest Prices." From Ames' " Almanack "for 

314 Bibliography 


Lately Published and to be Sold by WILLIAM M'AL- 
M* Alpine PINE, In Marlborough-Street, BOSTON: Watts's psalms and 
1768 hymns ; Tate and Brady's psalms, with or without tunes, plain and 

*"'~*""* > ^ gilt ; spelling books, primers, and psalters ; Russel's seven sermons ; 
book of knowledge ; with a number of other books in divinity, 

history, &c. Country traders, and others, may depend on being 

served at the lowest cash price, by the quantity, as most of the 
above books are printed and bound by said M'ALPINE. 

" N. B. Those who are long in arrears with said M'ALPINE, 
are requested to pay their respective balances immediately." From 
" The Boston Chronicle" Monday, February 8, 1768. 

" William M'Alpine, Informs his Customers and others, that, 

M" Alpine being obliged to raise a sum of money in zfew months He intends to 

i?68 dispose of his stock, under the common wholesale prices if applied for 

*-^~%~~* 5 soon. Most of the Books are of his printing and binding, and will 

be warranted good. Among which are : Watts Psalms and Hymns, 

bound in one volume, or separately, with or without tunes ; Tate 

and Brady's Psalms gilt or plain, with or without tunes ; New 

England Psalms, with or without tunes; Psalters, Spelling-books, 

Russel's seven Sermons, Book of Knowledge, Tansur's Music-books, 

Bayley's Music-books, De Laun's Plea for the Nonconformists, 

New-England Memorandum-books, New-England Primers, Royal 

Primers, Proof Catechisms, &c. with a good assortment of large and 

small BOOKS in Divinity, History, Verses, &c. &c. &c." From 

" The Boston Chronicle" Monday, October j/, 1 768. 

" PRINTING, Performed in a neat and correct Manner, by 
Dunlap,i768 JOHN DUNLAP, At the Newest Printing-Office, on the South 
Side of the Jersey Market, the third Door below Second street ; 
who has for Sale, a small Assortment of Books and Stationary, 
among which are, Bibles, Testaments, Spelling-Books, Primers, 


Confessions of Faith." From " The Pennsylvania Gazette" June 2, 

" The New England Primer improved. Philadelphia : Robert 
Aitken. 1770 ' From Hildeburn's " Issues of the Press in Pennsyl- Aitken, 1770 


"The New England Primer. Germantown, C. Sower. 1770" 
WickershanCs " History of Education in Pennsylvania" p. /<?J". So-iver, 1770 

" Nathaniel Patten, Bookbinder and Stationer, From Boston, 
Hereby acquaints the Public, that he has opened a Shop at the East Patten, 1774 
End of the Plain, near the Printing-Office, Norwich . . . He has 
for Sale a select Collection of Books upon the most important Sub- 
jects : Among which are, Bibles, Testaments, Psalters, Spelling 
Books, Primers, Royal Ditto." From " The Norwich Packet" 
Thursday, May /<?, 

"The New England Primer. Philadelphia: Robert Aitken. 
1777." From Hildeburn's " Issues of the Press in Pennsylvania" Aitken, 177 

"The New England Primer. Philadelphia: Robert Aitken, 
1778." From Hildeburn's " Issues of the Press in Pennsylvania" Aitken, 

"The Newest American Primer. Philadelphia: Styner and 
Cist. 1779." From Hildeburns " Issues of the Press in Pennsylvania" Styner & Cist 


"A Primer. Philadelphia: Walters and Norman. 1779. 
Adorned with a beautiful head of general Washington and other Walters 
copper plate cuts." Pa. Evening Post, June 23, 1779. This was N rman 
the first portrait of Washington engraved in America." From 
Hildeburn 's " Issues of the Press in Pennsylvania" 

" The New England Primer enlarged. Philadelphia : Styner and 
Cist. 1779." From Hildeburn's " Issues of the Press in Pennsylvania" 

3 1 6 Bibliography 

" Hall and Sellers published an edition of the New England 
Hall & Primer in January, and Cruikshank another in December, 1779." 

; ' r ' ''" Fro?n Hildeburn's " Issues of the Press in Pennsylvania" 

"Just come to hand and now selling by Nathaniel Patten, Book- 
Patten, f/So Binder and Stationer, a little North of the Court House in Hartford, 
*-*^^^ x ** for Cash, Cotton and Linen Rags or Produce, clothiers Press papers, 
Coperas Logwood, Writing Paper, Testaments, Dillworth's Spelling 
Books, Primmers, Earl of Chesterfield's letters neatly bound and 
letter'd, History of the martyrs, History of the Indian Wars, Dill- 
worth's Arithmetic, Watt's Lyric Poems, Goughs English Gram- 
mer, Russels 7 Sermons, Pocket Books, Latin Testaments, Do. 
Grammers, Do. Accidence, and a variety of other Books, Needles, 
Powder, Pipes, &c. &c." " The Connecticut Courant" Tuesday, 
February 22, Ij8o. 

"To be SOLD at the North Door under the Printing Office in 

Hudson & Hartford LORD CHESTERFIELDS LETTERS to his Son ; 

Goodwin Dilworth's Spelling Book printed on a large new Type and strong 

' C *^ Paper ; Law's Collection of Psalmody ; Primers ; Bohea Tea ; 

Coffee ; Sugar; Chocolate; Indigo; Pepper; English Currants ; 

Felt Hats; Pocket Books; Pigtail Tobacco, &c. &c." From 

u The Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, March 28, Ij8o. 

" Just published, and to be sold, By B. WEBSTER, A few 
Webster, 178 1 rods South-East of the Court-House, in Hartford : (By the hun- 
dred, dozen, or single). THE PSALMS OF DAVID, imitated 
in the Language of the New-Testament, and applied to the Christian 
State, and Worship, By I. WATTS, D.D. also, the New-England 
PRIMER, improved, for the more easy attaining the true reading 
of English : to which is added the ASSEMBLY of DIVINES, 
and Mr. COTTON's Catechism ; he has for sale, Testaments, 
Pope's Essay on Man, and a number of Pamphlets." From " The 
Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, April ij, if8l. 

Bibliography 317 

"Just come to hand and now selling, by NATHANIEL PAT- 
TEN, Book Binder and Stationer, A little north of the State-House, Patten, 1781 
Hartford, Testaments, Dilworth's Spelling Books, Primers, Watts's '~|r\j 
Psalms and Lyric Poems, Young Man's Companion, Chesterfield's 
Letters, Hunter's Reflections on ditto, Pupil of Pleasure, Paradise 
Lost and Regained, Young's Night Thoughts, Lowth's English 
Grammar, History of the Indian Wars, Latin Testaments, Lillie's 
and Ross's Grammar, Barretson's English Exercises into Latin, ditto 
Accidences, Nomenclatures. A number of entertaining Books for 
Children, viz. The History of the World turned upside down, 
Goody Two-Shoes, Entertaining Fables, the History of the Holy 
Jesus, Tom Thumb folio, Song Books, Copy-Books, Pocket-Books, 
Receipt Books, Ink-powder, Sealing Wax, Slate and Black Lead Pen- 
cils, Pins, Needles, Pipes, Coffee, Chocolate, Gauzes, &c. &c. &c." 
From " The Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, April 10, 1781. 

" Just Published and now Selling at the North Door, under the 
Printing-Office, (by the thousand, hundred or dozen) A neat and Hudson f 
Beautiful EDITION of the New-England PRIMER, also, Just Goodwin 
Published, and now Selling at the above Place, The REPRI- I7Sl 
MANDER, Reprimanded. By the Author of the Letters of Grati- 
tude." From " The Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, May I, Ij8i. 

" The New England Primer. Philadelphia : T. Bradford and 
P. Hall. 1781. From Hildeburn's " Issues of the Pennsylvania Press" Bradford 

" Just Published, and to be Sold, by NATHANIEL PAT- 
TEN, Book-Binder, a little North of the State-House, Hartford, 
The best Edition of Dilworth's Spelling-Books, that ever was Patten, 1781 
printed in New England (taken from a London copy) : Also, a very 
neat Edition of Primers, with a variety of other Books, &c &c &c. 
He has a few Record Books on hand. 

"N. B. The Clothiers and others that depend on Press- Papers, 
Logwood, Copperas, Allum, &c. that will be kind to collect in 


Hudson Gf 



Rags, may have those articles from their humble servant, N. Pat- 
ten." From " The Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, July j, 1781. 

" TO BE SOLD by Hudson & Goodwin, At the PRINT- 
ING-OFFICE : Testaments, Watts's Psalms and Hymns, bound 
together or separate, Edwards's Sermons, Memoirs of the Life of 
Dr. Doddridge, Mrs. Rowe's Letters, History of War in America, 
Adventures of Neoptolemus, Pupil of Pleasure, the Revolution of 
America, by the Abbe Raynal, Hunter's Reflection on Chesterfield's 
Letters, Narative of Col. Allen's Captivity, Law's Collection of 
Music, Lowth's Grammar, Dilworth's Spelling-Books by the groce, 
dozen or single, Primers, Writing and Wrapping-Paper, by the ream 
or quirem, Clothiers Press Papers, by the groce or dozen, Cartridge 
Paper, Blanks of most kinds used in this State, Sealing-Wax 
Wafers, Holman's British Ink Powder, small Looking-Glasses, 
Pins, black and Coloured Silk Handkerchiefs, &c &c." From 
" The Connecticut Courant" Tuesday, July 16, 1782. 

" Bibles, Watts's Psalms & Hymns bound together, Primers, 
Law's Collection of Music, Record and Account Books of various 
sizes, a small quantity of two and three thread Twine, best Holland 
Quills, Wafers, Writing and Wrapping Paper by the Ream or 
Quire, Press Papers, Bonnet Papers, Cartridge Paper, &c. to be 
Sold or exchanged for Rags, by the Printers hereof." From " The 
Connecticut Courant" Tuesday, March II, 1783. 

"CHARLES COLLENS Has for Sale at Litchfield South 
Collens, 1783 Farms near the Meeting House, an assortment of Dry Goods 
Among which are Broadcloths, Callicoes, Chintzes, white and 
check'd Holland ,Cambrick,Lawns, black Satten, Mode, Black Laces, 
Silk Handkerchiefs, black and white Gauze, black and white Milliner., 
black rib'd and plain Lasting, Buttons, Twists, Buckles of different 
sorts, Powder and Shot, German Steel, rod Nails, Brimstone, Pipes, 
brass and steel Thimbles, table butts and Screws, steel plated Hand- 



Bibliography 319 

Saws, Iron hollow Ware, Wool Cards, Rum, Sugar, Tacks and 
Allblades, brass Knobs, Knives and Forks, Pins, Needles, Spelling- 
Books, Primers, Testaments, Writing Paper, Tea, Chocolate, and a 
variety of other articles, which will be sold at a reasonable price." 

From " The Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, April 8, 1 783. 

"Just published, and now Selling, By HUDSON & GOOD- 
WIN, a neat Edition of DILWORTH'S SPELLING BOOK Hudson & 
Printed on a large Type and fine Paper, to which is added The 
Shorter Catechism, Agreed upon by the Reverend Assembly of 
Divines at Westminister. Those who purchase large quantities shall 
have them as cheap as they are sold in New-York or Boston. 
ALSO, NEW-ENGLAND PRIMERS, By the Gross, Dozen or 
Single." From " The Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, August ly, 1783. 

" To Be Sold by the Printers hereof, Writing and Wrapping 
Paper, by the Ream or Quire, Press Papers by the Groce or Hudson & 
Dozen. Bonnet Papers, by the Groce, Dozen or single. Dill- Goodwin 
worth's Spelling Books, Primers. Military Books, Almanacks, &c. 
&c. From " The Connecticut Courant" Tuesday, January 20, 1784.. 

" To be Sold, or exchanged for RAGS, at the Printing Office 
near the Bridge, Bibles, Testaments, Watts' Psalms, Spelling Books, Hudson & 
Primers, Ink Powder, Sealing Wax, Wafers, Copper Plate Copies, Goodwin 
Holland Quills, Writing and Wrapping Paper, Press and Bonnet 7 ' ^ 
Papers, Sheathing Paper, Account Books A variety of Small Books 
for children, &c. &c." From " The Connecticut Courant," Tuesday, 
September 28, 1784.. 

" The following Books just published are Sold by Hugh Gaine, 
at his Book store and Printing Office in Hanover-Square, New Gaine, 1786 
York, . . . English books for the Use of Schools. Bibles, Testa- 
ments, Spelling Books and Primers." From Clarke's "Corderia 
Colloquiorium Centuria Selecta," New York : 1786. 








WHAT follows is an attempt to gather so far as is possible, all the texts which ap- 
peared in every known edition of the New England Primer printed prior to 1776. 
Each piece is classed under the Primer (or its prototypes) in which it first appeared, 
and all editions in which it was printed are mentioned in the appended notes. To all matter 
which appeared in the New England Primer of 1727, and the New English Tutor, both of 
which are reprinted in this volume, a mere reference to the page at which the text is printed 
is thought sufficient. Such texts as are not in those two publications are reprinted here. 



" Verses of John Rogers ". 

England Primer, 169-?; (with print), New English Tutor, (p. 166-175); 
New England Primer, 1727, (p. 88-95); and in every eighteenth century New England 
Primer examined by the editor. 

Tutor, 1683 

"Prayer of King Edward Vlth ". 

# *jj. New English Tutor (p. 175-176). 

Neiv England 




" Our Lord's Prayer ". Bradford 

^* # New England Tutor, (p. 161) ; Protestant Tutor, 1715; New England Primer, 
1727, (p. 73) ; and all other editions examined by the editor. 


The Creed ". 

,j.* # New England Tutor, (p. 161); Protestant Tutor, 1715; New England Primer, 
I 7' i 7> (P- 73"4) j an< ^ *& other editions examined by the editor. 

3 2 4 


" The Ten Commandments ". 

.,.*^ The New English Tutor, (p. 162-3); New England Primer, (p. 74-76); 1727; 
I737J I73 8 5 

" A Dialogue between Christ, Youth and the Devil ". 

English Tutor, (p. 226-237); New England Primer, 1762; 1767; 1768; 

1771 ; 1775. 


w England Cotton's " Spiritual Milk for Babes ". 

.*. New English Tutor, (p. 186-199); New England Primer, 1761; 1762; 1769; 

1770; 1771 ; 1773; '775- 


Ne--w English Extract from "Proverbs" (p. 140). 

Tutor, IJO2- ^ Protestant Tutor, 1715. New England Primer, 1727, (p. 58) 17375 1738; 1784? 

(with slight variations). 

" Of Serving God " (p. 140). 

# ** New England Primer, 1727, (p. 58); 1737 ; 1738 ; 1775. 

Alphabet and Syllabarium (p. 140-142). 

^* # New England Primer, 1727, (p. 59-61); and all other editions examined by the 

Words of one to six syllables (p. 144-151). 

^^ New England Primer, 1727, (62-64) j and a11 otner editions examined by the editor. 

Variorum 325 

Rhymed Alphabet (p. 152-155). 

# \ Guide to the Child, 1725 ; New England Primer, 1727, (p. 65-68), and in all other A^ou English 
New England Primers. For account of variation, see introduction, p. 25. Tutor 

1702-1714 ? 

"The Dutiful Child's Promise" (p. 156-157). 

x*# Protestant Tutor, 1715; New England Primer, 1727, (p. 69-70); 1737; I73 8 i 
1767; 1771. 

" An Alphabet of Lessons for Youths" (p. 157-160). 

# \ Protestant Tutor, 1715; New England Primer, 1727, (p. 70-72) ; 1737 j '73 8 5 
1762; 1767; 1768; 1771 ; 1775. 

" Choice Sentences " (p. 160). 

# * # New England Primer, 1727, (p. 72); 17375 '73 8 > 1762; I7&75 '7 68 5 *775- 

"The First Psalm " (p. 176-177). 

"A Prayer for Children in the Morning" (p. 177). 

" A Prayer at Night " (p. 177-178). 

"A Blessing before Meat" (p. 178). 

"A Thanksgiving after Meat" (p. 178-179). 

"Children's duty to their Parents" (p. 179-180). 

# * # New England Primer, 1727, (p. 76; 78-80) ; 1737; 1738 ; 1767; 1771. 

"Parent's duty to Children" (p. 181-182). 
"The Duty of young Folks" (p. 182-184). 
"The Duty of Servants" (p. 184-185). 
"The Duty of Masters" (p. 185-186). 

326 Variorum 

"On Death" (p. 200). 

New English " On Judgment " (p. 201). 


1702-1714? "On Heaven" (p. 202). 


On Hell " (p. 203). 
" Romans, Chapter XII " (p. 204-207). 
"First Chapter of John " (p. 207-211). 
"Christian Observations" (p. 211-212). 
41 Awake, arise, behold thou hast " (p. 212). 

#*# New England Primer, 1727; (p. 81); (Part) 1737; 1738; 1762; 1767; 1768, 

1771 ; 1775. 

"The Names and Order of the Books of the Old and New 
Testament" (p. 213-214). 

x*% Protestant Tutor, 1715 ; New England Primer, 1727 5 (p. 81-83); J 737 5 

Numeral Letters and Figures" (p. 215-220). 

#*# Protestant Tutor, 1715 ; New England Primer, 1727 5 (83-87). 

Points and Stops observed in Reading" (p. 220). 
"God's Judgment on Disobedient Children" (p. 220-221). 

%*% New England Primer, 1767. 

" Upon Scoffing Children " (p. 221-222). 

^*^ New England Primer, 1767. 

"Upon Lying Children" (p. 222-223). 
Upon Sabbath-breakers" (p. 223-224). 

%*# New England Primer, 1767. 





3 2 7 

" Encouragement for Serious Children " (p. 224). 
u Our Days begin with trouble here" (p. 224225). 

England Primer, 1768 ; 1775. 


The Ten Commandments " in verse (p. 225). 

Words fitly spoken ; or Apples of Gold in Pictures of Silver " (p. 

u Proverbial Sentences to learn by Heart" (p. 241243). 


Agur's Prayer " (p. 243). 

# *^ New England Primer, 1762 ; 1768 ; 1771 ; 1775. 

Advice to Children" (p. 244-246). 

" Child behold that man of Sin, the pope, worthy thy utmost hatred,' 
(p. 247). 


" First in the Morning when thou doest awake ". Guide to the 

# * # New England Primer, 1727, (p. 80); 1737; 1738; 1762; 1768; 1771; 1775. Child and 

Youth, 1725 



In the burying place may see " (p. 80). 

*** New England Primer, 1737 ; 1738 ; 1762 ; 1767 ; 1768 ; 1771 ; 1775. 

Ne-iu England 
Primer, 172? 



"Good Children must " (p. 81). 

#*# New England Primer, 1737; 1738 ; 1762 ; 1767 ; 1768; 1771. 

"The Shorter catechism " (p. 96136). 

j.*} In every New England Primer examined by the editor. 

Ne-~w England 
Primer, 173? 


Now I lay me down to take my sleep 
I pray the Lord my soul to keep, 
If I should die before I wake, 
I pray the Lord my soul to take. 

#*# New England Primer, 1738; I76z; 1167; 1768 ; 1770; 1771 ; 1775. 

* # 

Lord if thou lengthen out my days, 
Then let my heart fo fixed be, 
That I may lengthen out thy praife, 
And never turn afide from thee. 

So in my end I mail rejoice, 
In thy falvation joyful be ; 
My foul mail fay with loud glad voice, 
Jehovah who is like to thee ? 

Who takeft the lambs into thy arms, 
And gently leaded thofe with young. 
Who faveft children from all harms, 
Lord, I will praife thee with my fong. 

And when my days on earth mail end, 
And I go hence and be here no more, 
Give me eternity to fpend, 
My God to praife forever more. 

New England Primer, 1738 5 1762 ; 1771. 

Variorum 329 

VERSES for Children. 

THOUGH I am but a little one, 
If I can fpeak and go alone, New England 

Then I muft learn to know the Lord, Primer, 1137 

And learn to read his holy word. 
'Tis time to feek to God and pray 
For what I want for every day : 
I have a precious foul to fave, 
And I a mortal body have, 
Tho' I am young yet I may die, 
And haften to eternity : 
There is a dreadful fiery hell, 
Where wicked ones muft always dwell ; 
There is a heaven full of joy, 
Where godly ones muft always ftay ; 
To one of thefe my foul muft fly, 
As in a moment when I die : 
When God that made me, calls me home, 
I muft not ftay, I muft be gone. 
He gave me life, and gives me breath, 
And he can fave my foul from death, 
By JESUS CHRIST my only Lord, 
According to his holy word. 
He clothes my back and makes me warm : 
He faves my flem and bones from harm. 
He gives me bread and milk and meat 
And all I have that's good to eat. 
When I am fick, he if he pleafe, 
Can make me well and give me eafe : 
He gives me fleep and quiet reft, 
Whereby my body is refrefh'd 
The Lord is good and kind to me, 
And very thankful I muft be : 
I muft obey and love and fear him, 
By faith in Chrift I muft draw near him. 
I muft not fin as others do, 
Left I lie down in forrow too : 

33 Variorum 

For God is angry every day, 

New England With wicked ones who go aftray. 

Primer, 1737 All finful words I muft reftrain : 

I muft not take God's name in vain. 

I muft not work, I muft not play, 

Upon God's holy fabbath day. 

And if my parents fpeak the word, 

I muft obey them in the Lord. 

Nor fteal, nor lie, nor fpend my days, 

In idle tales and foolim plays. 

I muft obey my Lord's commands, 

Do fomething with my little hands : 

Remember my creator now, 

In youth while time will it allow. 

Young SAMUEL that little child, 

He ferved the Lord, liv'd undefil'd; 

Him in his fervice God employ'd, 

While ELI'S wicked children dy'd. 

When wicked children mocking said, 

To a good man, Go up bald bead, 

God was difpleaf 'd with them and fent 

Two bears which them in pieces rent. 

I muft not like thefe children vile, 

Difpleafe my God, myfelf defile 

Like young ABIJAH, I must see, 

That good things may be found in me. 

Young King J o s i A H , that blefled youth, 

He fought the Lord and lov'd the truth ; 

He like a King did aft his part, 

And follow'd God with all his heart. 

The little children they did fmg, 

Hofannahs to their heavenly King, 

That blefled child young TIMOTHY, 

Did learn God's word moft heedfully. 

It feem'd to be his recreation, 

Which made him wife unto falvation ; 

By faith in Chrift which he had gain'd 

With prayers and tears that faith unfeign'd. 


33 1 

Thefe good examples were for me ; 
Like thefe good children I muft be. 
Give me true faith in Chrift my Lord, 
Obedience to his holy word. 
No word is in the world like thine, 
There's none fo pure, fweet and divine. 
From thence let me thy will behold, 
And love thy word above fine gold. 
Make my heart in thy ftatutes found, 
And make my faith and love abound. 
Lord circumcife my heart to love thee : 
And nothing in this world above thee : 
Let me behold thy pleafed face, 
And make my foul to grow in grace, 
And in the knowledge of my Lord 
And Saviour Chrift, and of his word. 

New England Primer, 1738; 1762; 1771; 1775. 


A Divine SONG of Praise to GOD, for a CHILD by the Rev. 

Dr. Watts. 

HOW glorious is our heav'nly King, 
Who reigns above the sky ? 
How shall a child presume to sing 
His dreadful majesty ? 

How great his power is, none can tell, 

Nor think how large his grace, 
Nor men below, nor saints that dwell 

On high before his face. 

Nor angels that stand round the Lord, 

Can search his secret will : 
But they perform his heav'nly word, 

And sing his praises still. 

The Royal 
1750-1760 ? 

33 2 


Then let me join this holy train, 
And my first offerings bring; 

Th' eternal God will not disdain 
To hear an infant sing. 

My heart resolves, my tongue obeys, 
And angels shall rejoice, 

To hear their mighty Maker's praise 
Sound from a feeble voice. 

New England Primer, 1762; 1770; 1775. 


Ne*~iv England 
Primer, 1762 

Who was the firft man ? 
Who was the firft woman ? 
Who was the firft Murderer ? 
Who was the firft Martyr ? 
Who was the firft Tranflated ? 
Who was the oldeft Man ? 
Who built the Ark ? 
Who was the Patienteft Man ? 
Who was the Meekest Man ? 
Who led Ifrael into Canaan ? 
Who was the ftrongest Man ? 
Who killed Goliah ? 
Who was the wifeft Man ? 
Who was in the Whale's Belly ? 
Who faves loft Men ? 
Who is Jesus Chrijl ? 
Who was the Mother of Chri/f ? 
Who betrayed his Mafter ? 
Who denied his Mafter? 
Who was the firft Christian Martyr ? 
Who was chief Apoftle of the Gentiles ? 

Jefus Chrift. 
The Son of God. 


New England Primer, 1767; 1768 ; 1771 ; 1775. 



Some proper Names of MEN and WOMEN, 
to teach Children to f pell their own. 

Men's Names. 

A Dam, Abel, 
Amos, Aaron, 
Abijah, Andrew, 
Alexander, Anthony, 
Benjamin, Barnabas, 
Benoni, Barzillai, 
Caleb, Caefar, 
Charles, Chriftopher, 
Clement, Cornelius, 
David, Daniel, 
Ephraim, Edward, 
Edmund, Ebenezer, 
Elijah, Eliphalet, 
Elifha, Eleazer, 
Elihu, Ezekiel, 
Elias, Elizur, 
Frederick, Francis, 
Gilbert, Giles, 
George, Gamaliel, 
Gideon, Gerfhom, 
Heman, Henry, 
Hezekiah, Hugh, 
John, Jonas, Ifaac, 
Jacob, Jared, Job, 

James, Jonathan, 
Ifrael, Joseph, 
Jeremiah, Jofhua, 
Jofiah, Jedediah, 
Jabez, Joel, Judah, 
Lazarus, Luke, 
Matthew, Michael, 
Mofes, Malachi, 
Nathaniel, Nathan, 
Nicholas, Noadiah, 
Nehemiah, Noah, 
Obadiah, Ozias, 
Paul, Peter, Philip, 
Phineas, Peletiah, 
Ralph, Richard, 
Samuel, Sampfon, 
Stephen, Solomon, 
Seth, Simeon, Saul, 
Shem, Shubal, 
Timothy, Thomas, 
Titus, Theophilus, 
Uriah, Uzzah, 
Walter, William, 
Xerxes, Xenophon, 
Zachariah, Zabdiel, 
Zedekiah, Zadock, 
Zebulon, Zebediah. 

Women's Names. 


Bigail, Anne, 

Alice, Anna, 
Bethiah, Bridget, 
Chloe, Charity, 
Deborah, Dorothy, 
Dorcas, Dinah, 

Elizabeth, Efther, 
Eunice, Eleanor, 
Frances, Flora, 
Grace, Gillet, 
Hannah, Huldah, 

Ne?w England 
Primer, 1762 

334 Variorum 


New England Henrietta, Hagar, 

Primer, 1762 Joanna, Jane, 

Jemima, Ifabel, 
Judith, Jennet, 
Katharine, Ketura, 
Kezia, Lydia, 
Lucretia, Lucy, 
Lois, Lettice, 
Mary, Margaret, 

Martha, Mehetable, 
Marcy, Merial, 
Patience, Phylis, 
Phebe, Prifcilla, 
Rachel, Rebecca, 
Ruth, Rhoda, Rose, 
Sarah, Sufanna, 
Tabitha, Tamefin, 
Zipporah, Zibiah. 

# * # New England Primer, 1768; 1771; 1775. 

The late Reverend and Venerable Mr. Nathaniel Clap, of 
Newport on Rhode Island ; his Advice to children. 

Good children should remember daily, God their Creator, Re- 
deemer, and Sanctifier ; to believe in, love and serve him ; their 
parents to obey them in the Lord ; their bible and catechism ; their 
baptism ; the Lord's day ; the Lord's death and resurrection ; their 
own death and resurrection; and the day of judgment, when all that 
are not fit for heaven must be sent to hell. And they should pray 
to God in the name of Christ for saving grace. 

%*x New England Primer, 1770; 1771; I77S- 

What's right and good Thus shall I be 

Now show me Lord, A child of God, 

And lead me by And love and fear 

Thy grace and word. Thy hand and rod. 

#\ New England Primer, 1768; 1771; 1775. 

The Infant's Grace before and after Meat. 

Bless me, O Lord, and let my food strengthen me to serve 
thee, for Jesus Christ's sake. Amen. 

I Desire to thank God who gives me food to eat every day of 
my life. Amen. 

y_*x New England Primer, 1771 ; 1775. 


Variorum 335 

Advice to Youth. Eccle. xn. 

Now in the heat of youthful blood, Nw England 

Remember your Creator God ; Pr ' imer > X 7 62 

Behold the months come hast'ning on, 
When you shall say, My joys are gone. 

Behold the aged sinner goes 
Laden with guilt and heavy woes, 
Down to the regions of the dead, 
With endless curses on his head. 

The dust returns to dust again, 
The soul in agonies of pain, 
Ascends to God not there to dwell, 
But hears her doom and sinks to hell. 
Eternal King I fear thy name, 
Teach me to know how frail I am, 
And when my soul must hence remove, 
Give me a mansion in thy love. 

New England Primer, 1768. 

The Sum of the Ten Commandments. 
With all thy soul love God above 
And as thyself thy neighbour love. 

New England Primer, 1767; 1768; 17715 1775. 

Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth. 

Children your great Creator fear. 

To him your homage pay, 
While vain employments fire your blood, 

And lead your thoughts astray 
The due remembrance of his name 
Your first regard requires : 
Till your breast glows with sacred love, 

Indulge no meaner fires. 
Secure his favor, and be wise, 

Before these cheerless days, 
When age comes on, when mirth's no more 

And health and strength decays. 

New England Primer, 1768 ; 1771 ; 1775. 

33 6 



New England T TUSH, my dear, lie still and slumber, 

Primer, 1762 JL J. Holy angels guard thy bed, 

Heav'nly blessings without number 

Gently falling on thy head. 
Sleep, my babe, thy food and raiment, 

House and home thy friends provide, 
And without thy care or payment, 

All thy wants are well supply'd. 
How much better thou'rt attended, 

Than the Son of God could be, 
When from heaven he descended, 

And became a child like thee. 
Soft and easy is thy cradle, 

Coarse and hard thy Saviour lay, 
When his birth place was a stable, 

And his softest bed was hay. 
Blessed babe ! what glorious features ! 

Spotless fair, divinely bright ; 
Must he dwell with brutal creatures ? 

How could angels bear the sight ? 
Was there nothing but a manger, 

Cursed sinners could afford, 
To receive the heav'nly stranger ? 

Did they thus affront the Lord ? 
Soft, my Child, I did not chide thee, 

Though my song might sound too hard, 
'Tis thy mother sits beside thee, 

And her arms shall be thy guard. 
Yet to read the shameful story, 

How the Jews abus'd their King, 
How they serv'd the Lord of glory, 

Makes me angry while I sing. 
See the kinder shepherds round him, 

Telling wonders of the sky ; 
There they sought him, there they found him, 

With his virgin mother by. 

Variorum 337 

See the lovely babe a-dressing : 

Lovely infant, how he smil'd ! New England 

When he wept, the mother's blessing Primer, 1762 

Sooth'd and hush'd the holy child. 
Lo ! he slumber'd in the manger, 

Where the horned oxen fed ; 
Peace my darling, here's no danger, 

Here's no oxen near thy bed. 
'Twas to save thee, child, from dying, 

Save my dear from burning flame, 
Bitter groans and endless crying, 

That thy bless'd Redeemer came. 
May'st thou live to know and fear him, 

Trust and love him all thy days ! 
Then go dwell for ever near him, 

See his face, and sing his praise, 
I could give thee thousand kisses, 

Hoping what I most desire : 
Not a mother's fondest wishes, 

Can to greater joy aspire. 

New England Primer, 1767 ; 1768 ; 1771 ; 1775. 


Our Saviour's Golden Rule. 

IE you to others kind and true, 

As you'd have others be to you : 
And neither do nor fay to men, 

Whate'er you would not take again. 

New England Primer, 1767 ; 1768 ; 1771 ; 1771 ; !77S- 

LOVE God with all your foul & ftrength. 
With all your heart and mind ; 
And love your neighbour as yourfelf, 

Be faithful, juft and kind. 
Deal with another as you'd have 

Another deal with you : 
What you're unwilling to receive, 
Be fure you never do. 

New England Primer, 1768 ; 1771 ; 1775. 



The Infant's or young Child's Evening Prayer. From Dr. Watts. 

O Lord God who knowest all Things, thou Seest me by Night 
as well as by Day. I pray thee for Christ's Sake, forgive me what- 
soever I have done amiss this Day, and keep me all this Night, 
while I am asleep. I desire to lie down under thy care, and to 
abide forever under thy Blessing, for thou art a God of all Power 
and everlasting Mercy. Amen. 

%*# New England Primer, 1768 ; 1775. 

The young Infant's or Child's morning Prayer. From Dr. Watts. 

Almighty God the Maker of every Thing in Heaven and Earth : 
the Darkness goes away, and the Day light comes at thy Command. 
Thou art good and doest good continually. I thank thee that thou 
hast taken such Care of me this Night, and that I am alive and 
well this Morning. Save me, O God, from Evil, all this Day 
long, and let me love and serve thee forever, for the Sake of Jesus 
Christ thy Son. Amen. 

.*. New England Primer, 1768; 1771 ; 1775- 


)ueftwns and Anfwers out of the Holy Scriptures 

New England Q. WHO was the firjl Man? A. Adam. 

Primer, 1767 Q. Who was the fir/1 Woman? A. Eve. 

Q. Of what did God make Man ? 

A. God made Man of the Duft of the 


Of what did God make Woman ? 

Of one of Man's Ribs. 

Where did Adam and Eve dwell? 

A. In Paradife. 

Q. What caft Adam out of Paradife? 

A. Sin. 

Variorum 339 

Q. Who faves loft Men? A. Jefus Chrift. 

Q. Who is Jefus Chrift? New England 

A. The Son of God. Primer, 1767 

Q. Who Jlew his Brother? A. Cain. 

Q. Who was the oldejl Man ? 

A. Methufelah. 

Q. Who was the Man God faved when he 
drowned the whole World? 

A. Noah, and his Family. 

Q. Who was the Father of the Faithful? 

A. Abraham. 

Q. Who was the Child of the Promife ? 

A. Isaac. 

Q. Who wrejiled with God ? A. Jacob. 

Q. What was his Name called after he 
wrejiled with God? A. Ifrael. 

Q. How many Sons had Jacob ? 

A. Twelve; of whom came the Twelve 
Tribes of Ifrael. 

Q. Who entered the Promifed Land ? 

A. Jofhua and Caleb. 

Q. Who commanded the Sun and Moon to 
Jlandjlill? A. Jofhua. 

Q. Who was the moft patient Man ? A. Job. 

Q. Who was the meekejl Man ? A. Mofes. 

Q. Who was the wifeft Man ? A. Solomon. 

Q. Who was theftrongeft Man? A. Samfon. 

Q. Who was the Man after God's own 
Heart ? 

A. David. 

Q. Who was the hard heart edejl Man ? 

A. Pharaoh, King of Egypt. 

Q. Who was fed by Ravens, and at length 
carried up in a fiery chariot to heaven ? 

A. Elijah. 

Q. Who made Iron fwim ? A. Elifha. 

Q. Who was caft into the Lion's Den ? 

A. Daniel. 

34-O Variorum 

Q. Who were caft into the fiery Furnace? 

New England A. Shadrach, Mefhach, and Abednego. 

Primer, /7d7 Q- What cities were deftroyed by Fire and 

brim/lone ? A. Sodom and Gomorrah. 

Q. Who was thefirft Martyr after Chrijl ? 

A. Stephen. 

Q. Whose Life was refpited, on his Prayers, 
Fifteen Years Longer than otherwife he would 
have lived? A. Hezekiah's. 

Q. Who betrayed his Lord and Majfar ? 

A. Judas. 

Q. What did he betray him for ? 

A. For the Love of Money, which is the 
Root of all Evil. 

Q. For how much Money did Judas betray his 
Majier ? A. For Thirty Pieces of Silver. 

Some Jhort and eafy 

Q. WHO made you ? A. God. 

Q. Who redeemed you ? A. Jefus Chrift. 

(3. Who fanctifies and preferves you ? 

A. The Holy Ghoft. 

Q. Of what are you made? A. Duft. 

Q. What doth that teach you ? 

A. To be humble and mindful of Death. 

Q. For what End was you made ? 

A. To ferve God. 

Q. How muft you ferve him? 

A. In Spirit and Truth. 


AS Goodnefs and Learning make the Child a Man, fo Piety 
makes him an Angel. Mafter Tommy Fido not only loved 
his Book becaufe it made him wifer, but becaufe it made him better 
too. He loved every Body, and could not fee a Stranger hurt, 








Variorum 341 

without feeling what he fuffered, without pitying him, and wifhing 

he could help him. He loved his Papa and Mamma, his Brothers New England 

and Sifters, with the deareft Affection ; he learnt his Duty to God, Primer, 7767 

thanked him for his Goodnefs, and was glad that he had not made 

him a Horfe or a Cow, but had given him Senfe enough to know 

his Duty, and every Day when he faid his Prayers, thanked God for 

making him a little Man. One Day he went to Church, he minded 

what the Parfon said, and when he came home asked his Papa, 

if God loved him ; his Papa faid Yes, my Dear. O ! my dear 

Papa, faid he, I am glad to hear it ; what a charming Thing it is 

to have God my Friend ! then nothing can hurt me ; I am fure I 

will love him as well as ever I can. Thus he every Day grew 

wifer and better. Every Body was pleafed with him, he had many 

Friends, the Poor bleffed him, and every one ftrove to make him 


.*. New England Primer, 1771. 


In fix Days God made the World, and all Things that are in it. 
He made the Sun to fhine by Day, and the Moon to mine by Night. 
He made all the Beafts that walk on the Earth all the Birds that 
fly in the Air, and all the Fifh that fwim in the Sea. Each Herb, 
and Plant, and Tree, are the Works of his Hands. All Things 
both great and fmall, that live and move, and breathe in this wide 
World, to him do owe their Breath, to him their Life : And God 
faw all that he made, and all were good. But there was not a Man 
to till the Ground. So God made Man of the Duft of the Earth 
and breathed into him the Breath of Life ; and gave him rule o'er 
all that he had made : And the Man gave Names to all the Beafts 
of the Field, the Fowls of the Air, and the Fifh of the Sea. But 
there was not found a Help meet for man ; fo God brought on him 
a deep Sleep and then took from his Side a Rib, of which he made 
a Wife, and gave her to the Man and her Name was Eve : and 
from thefe two came all the Sons of Men. 

y.*x New England Primer, 1771. 

3 4 2 Variorum 

A Collection of the best English Proverbs. 
New England & f r j en( j j n nee( j j s a Mend indeed. 

Primer, 1767 jr a j r W ords butter no parsnips. 

When the fox preaches let the geese beware. 
Fly the pleasure that will bite to-morrow. 
If all fools wore white caps, we 
should look like a flock of geese. 

.* New England Primer, 1771. 

A short Prayer to be used every Morning. 

OLORD our heavenly Father, almighty and everlasting God, I 
most humbly thank thee for thy great mercy and goodness 
in preserving and keeping me from all perils and dangers of this 
night past, and bringing me safely to the beginning of this day ; 
defend me, O LORD, in the same, with thy mighty power ; and 
grant, that this day I may fall into no sin, neither run into any 
danger, but that all my doings may be ordered by thy governance, 
to do always that which is righteous in thy sight, through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Amen. 

$.*# New England Primer, 1771. 

A short Prayer to be used every Evening. 

OLORD God, I beseech thee, of thy fatherly goodness and 
mercy to pardon all my offences, which in thought word or 
deed, I have this day committed against thee, and thy holy law. 
And now Lord, since the night is upon me and I am to take my 
rest, I pray thee lighten my eyes that I sleep not in death, let not 
my bed prove my grave, but so by the wings of thy mercy protect 
me, that I may rest from all terrors of darkness, that when I shall 
awake I may bless thy great and glorious name, and study to serve 
thee in the duties of the day following, that thou mayest be still 
my God, and I thy servant. Grant this for Jesus Christ's sake, 
to whom with thee and the Holy Ghost, be given, as most due, 
all honor and glory, now and forevermore. Amen. 

x*x New England Primer, 1771. 

Variorum 343 

Grace before Meat. 

O ETERNAL God, in whom we have our Being : We beseech New England 
thee bless with us these good Creatures provided for us, that Primer, i~6j 
in the strength thereof, we may set forth thy Praise and Glory, 
thro' Jesus Christ our Lord, Amen. 

Grace after Meat. 

THE God of Glory and Power, who hath created, redeemed, 
and at this time plentifully fed us ; Thy Holy Name be 
praised both now and evermore, Amen. 

y*% New England Primer, 1771. 

Advice to Children. 

COME Babe moft dear, 
To me draw near, 
And harken to my Voice, 

My Counfel take, 

And thou (halt make 
Thy Parents Hearts rejoice. 

Let true Love lead 

Thy Mind to read, 
That thou may'ft be a Preacher, 

To Slugs a Shame, 

To Blockheads blame, 
But Gladnefs to thy Teacher. 

Be not as they 

Which follow Play, 
With Dullards Head moft muddy ; 

But let thy Mind, 

Be well inclin'd 
Wifdom to feek with Study. 

For Fools do hafte, 

Their Time to wafte, 
Spending in Sport the Day; 

But while they jeft, 

Let thy Heart feaft, 
In feeking Wisdom's Way. 

3 44 Variorum 

As God's dear Seed, 

New England To learn give Heed. 

Primer, 1767 That when thy Head is hoary ; 

Wifdom may be 
A Crown to thee, 

Tranfcending earthly Glory. 
Do not diflemble, 
But rather tremble, 

With heart like broken Fallow ; 
Nor fteal, nor fwear, 
But dread, and fear, 

God's holy Name to hallow ; 
Nor luft, nor lye, 
Left thou fhould'ft die 

In fuch a woful State ; 
For God is juft, 
And all fuch muft 

Sink down into the Laks. 
In God's own Way 
Thou {halt obey, 

Thy Father and thy Mother ; 
And as a Dove, 
Shall live in Love. 

With Sifter and with Brother. 
That in their Sight 
Each Day and Night, 

Thou may'ft be Joy and Pleasure ; 
And in their Eye 
Fixt conftantly, 

As their peculiar Treafure. 
To each Delight, 
In carnal Sight, 

In God's pure Dread and Fear ; 
My Soul doth yearn 
That thou may'st learn 

A flaying fword to wear. 

To Chrift's Crofs bend, 
And in the End, 

Variorum 345, 

Through Mercy, not as Merit, 

In high Renown tie England 

And heavenly Crown, Primer > 

And Kingdom (hall inherit. 

Thy Peace and Reft 

From God's own Breaft 
Not Death or Hell (hall fever : 

But thou (halt fee 

Thy joy shall be, 
Amen, in him for ever. 

New England Primer, 1771. 


G *w t/SJ feS V!o ($9 f*j 


A. B. C. (see also Alphabet), All the letters of, 
25 ; Enschede, 4, Romish, 4 ; Henry 
Vlllth's, 5, 7 ; of 1636, 6, 9 5 Author- 
ized, 8 ; Union with Primer, 8-9 ; Ref- 
erences to, 35, 47. 

Abecedarium, 4. 

ADAM, Rhymed alphabet on, 25, 26. 
ADAMS, Samuel, 300. 
Advice See " Children " and " Youth." 
Advertisements of Primers, 17, 18, 308-319. 
AGUR'S Prayer, 46, 243, 327. 
AITKEN, R., 315. 

Alphabet (see also A. B. C.), 4, 5, 8, 59, 
141, 324. 

- Beccardi* s, 25. 

- Finch's, 2.5. 

- Of Lessons for Youth, 24, 70, 157, 

Rhymed. Texts, 26, 30, 65-68, 

152-155 ; History and variations in, 25- 
32 ; Evangelization of, 29, 46 ; Prints 
of, used in Holy Bible in Verse, 49, 284; 
Mentioned, 324. 

American Antiquarian Society, 22, 138, 305, 
306, 307. 

Primer See Primer. 

ANNE, Queen, 18, 27, 153. 
" Arbella," voyage of, 9. 
ARNOLD, B., question about, 47. 

John, 36, 250. 

Assembly's Catechism See Catechism and 

"Awake, arise, behold thou hast," 81, 212, 

BARCLAY, A., 300. 

BARNARD, Dr. H., 20, 299, 302, 303, 307. 

BASTINGIUS' Catechism, 8. 

BECCARDI'S Alphabet, 25. 

BEDELL'S Catechism, 9. 

Bible, Puritan Study of, 2 ; Printing of 
leads to the Reformation, 2 ; Monopoly 
of, 8 ; Books of, 1 6, 45, 8 1, 213, 326; 
Questions out of, 338. 

Epitome of, 25. 

In Verse, 49, 283-95. 
Blessing before Meat, A, 178, 325. 
Bodleian library, 250. 
BONNER, Bishop, 33. 
Book of Common Prayer, 8. 

of Hours, 4. 

of Martyrs See Foxe. 

Boston, Harris comes to, 14 ; Cotton comes 

to, 42. 

BOYLE, J., 301, 303. 
BRADFORD, William, 17, 284, 323. 
BRADFORD & Hall, 317. 
Bradford fragment, 17, 22, 41, 45, 323. 

BRINLEY, George, collection of Primers, 20 

22, 304. 
British Museum Library, 22, 138, 307. 



BROWNELL, G., 310. 

Brown University Library, 22, 306. 

BUMSTEAD,J., 304. 

CALVIN, J., reference to, 42. 

Calvinists, Catechism of, 10. 

Cards, Queen of, 50. 

Catechising, Clark on, 275 ; Mather on, 39, 
263; In New England, 4, 9, n, 2755 
Order for, 9, 10; Necessity of, 262; 
Day, 280. 

Catechisms, Anabaptist, 9 ; Church of Scot- 
land, 9; Episcopal, 5, 38, 312; In New 
England, 9, 115 Multiplication of, 7 ; 
Puritan, 9 ; Quaker, 9. 

- Assembly's See Westminister As- 


- Bastingius'j 8. 

- Bedell's, 9. 

- Cotton's, (J.), 10, II, 18, 37, 41- 
44, 48, (text) 186, (title) 261, 262, 300- 
304, 308, 316. 

Davenport's, IO. 
Eliot's, 10. 
Fiske's, io. 

- Fitch's, io. 

- Herbert's, 38. 

- Mather's, (C.), 43, 262. 

-(R.), io, n. 

Norton's, 10, II. 

Noyes' , io. 

Perkins', IO. 

Shepard's, IO. 

Stone's, io. 

Watts' ', 307. 

Westminister Assembly's Shorter, 12, 
(history of), 37-8, 40, 43, (text) 96-136, 
262, 299-308, 316, 319, 328. 

Longer, 38. 

Catholicism, Books of, 4 ; Primer, 4 ; Anti- 
Catholic books, 13, 15-16. 

CHARLES II., 12, 14, 26, 27. 
CHATTIN, J., 312. 

"Child's Dutiful Promise, The," 69, 156, 

Children, Advice to, 244, 327, 343 ; En- 
couragement for serious 224, 327 ; 
Upon Lying, 222, 326 ; Upon Scoffing, 
221, 326; Verses for, 46, 329. 

" Children's Duty to their Parents," 76, 78, 

179. 3 2 5- 

" Choice Sentences," 1 60, 325. 
" Christian Observations," 211, 326. 
CHURCH, E. D., 20, 299, 300. 
CLAP, Nathaniel, Advice of, 46, 334. 
CLARKE, D., On the Catechism, 275. 
COLLENS, C., 318. 
Columbian Primer See Primer. 

Commandments, The Ten, 1 6, 45, 74, 
162, 324 ; In verse, 225, 327 ; Sum of, 

Connecticut Historical Society, 22, 302. 

Primer See Primer. 

COOTE, Edward, 19-20, 24. 

COTTON, John, 37, 41 ; " Milk for Babes," 
1 8, 37, 41-44, 48, 1 86, 262, 324. 
S., io. 

COVERLY, N., 303, 305, 306, 307. 

"Creation, History of the," 48, 341. 
Creed, 4, 5, 16, 25, 73, 161, 323. 
Cross, Omission of, 24. 
Davenport, J., Saints' Anchor Hold, io, 18, 
284, 308. 

DAYE, S., 43. 

" Death, On," 200, 326. 

Dialogue between Christ, Youth and the 
Devil, A, 44, 45, 226, 324. 

DICKSON, W. and R., 306. 
DOBSON, T., 306. 
DUNCAN, R., 304. 

DUNLAP, J., 314. 

DUNTON, John, quoted, 14, 15, 138. 
" Duty of Masters, The," 185, 325. 
EAMES, Wilberforce, obligation to, 23. 
EDWARD Vlth., 7, Prayer of, 45, 175, 308, 


35 1 

EDWARDS, Jonathan, on children, I 5 Influ- 
ence of, 280. 

ELIZABETH, Queen, 7. 
ELLISON, A., 302. 
English Tutor See Tutor. 
Episcopacy, books of, 4-6. 
"Fido, History of Master Tommy," 340. 
"First in the Morning," 80, 327. 
"First Psalm, The," 176, 325. 
FISKE, John, 10, 40. 
FINCHE'S Alphabet See Alphabet. 
FITCH, J., 10. 
FLEET, T., 299, 306, 312. 

T. andj., 306. 

FOREEST, H. de, 19, 311. 

FORMAN, G., 305. 

FOWLE, Z., 20, 312. 

Foxe's Book of Martyrs, quoted, 33, 36, 49, 

FRANKLIN, B., 311. 

and Hall, 19, 20, 313. 

-J-i 39- 
GAINE, H., 312, 319. 

GEORGE I., 48. 

II., 48. 

- III., 49- 

God, The Puritan, 2. 

"God, Of Serving," 58, 140, 324. 

" God's Judgments on Disobedient Chil- 
dren," 220, 326. 

" Golden Rule, Our Savior's," 337. 

"Good Children Must," 81, 328. 

Goodly Primer See Primer. 

GOOKIN, D., 311. 

GREEN, S., 138. 

-T., 19, 57,308. 

Grace, after Meat, 343. Before meat, 343. 
Infants, 334. 

Guide to the Child, 27, 28, 326. 

HALL, S., 304. 
-T., 305. 

HALL & Sellers, 301, 316. 

HANCOCK, John, 149. 

HARRIS, Benjamin, Sketch of, 12-15 5 Com- 
piles Protestant Tutor, New England 
Primer and New English Tutor, 15 ; 
Probable author of Dialogue, 45 ; Writes 
"Holy Bible in Verse," 49, 283; 
Poetry of, 15, 26, 45, 283 ; Travels of, 
16-17; References to, 48, 138, 308; 
Reprint of his New England Primer, 
57-136; Reprint of his New English 
Tutor, 139-248. 

Benjamin, Jr., 284. 

"Have Communion with few," 8 1. 

"Heaven, On," 202, 326. 

Herbert's Catechism, 38. 

Hebrews, Puritan resemblance to, 2. 

"Hell, On," 203, 326. 

HENRY VIII., Primer of, 4, 7; Injunction 
of, 6-7. 

Horn Books, 24, 308, 312. 

HUDSON & Goodwin, 316, 317, 318, 319. 

HUMPHREYS, Heman, quoted, 38. 

HURST, J. F., 20, 302, 305, 306, 307. 

HUTH Library, 250. 

HYNDSHAW, J., 310. 

Independence, Evils of, 3 5 Development of, 

"In the Burying Place may See," 80, 327. 

JAMES I., 7. 

- H., 7, 14. 

"John, The First Chapter of," 207, 326. 

"Judgment, On," 201, 326. 

K.EACH, Benjamin, 9. 

KEIMER, J., 309. 

Kings, New England Primer change regard- 
ing, 27-8. 

KNEELAND, S., 57, 300. 
& Green, 299. 

LE, J., 309. 

" Learn these few Lines by Heart," 8 1, 212, 

LECHFORD, Thomas, quoted, 10. 

Lenox Library, 56, 299, 300, 302, 303, 

LEVERETT, T., 302. 

35 2 


LIVERMORE, George, quoted, 19 ; collection 

of Primers, 20, 22. 
Lord's Prayer, 4, 5, 1 6, 25, 73. 
"Lord if thou lengthen out my days," 328. 
" Love God with all your soul & strength," 

M' ALPINE, R., 311. 

W., 301, 313, 314. 

M'DOUGALL & Co., 303. 

MARY, Queen, 7, 33, 36. 

Massachusetts, order of General Court of, 3 ; 

Catechising in, 9, II; Request of court of, 


- Historical Society, 22, 303. 

MATHER, C., quoted, 1 1, 39, 41 ; On cate- 
chising, 39, 261 j Catechism of, 43, 262. 

- R., 10. 
MECOM, B., 312. 
MELCHER, J., 307. 

Men and Women, Names of, 333. 
"Milk for Babes." See Cotton, J. 
MYCALL, J., 307, 308. 

New England Character, 281; Schism in 
Churches, lo-n ; Morality of, 52. 

- Primer See Primer. 

English Tutor See Tutor. 
NEWMAN'S News from the Stars, 17. 
NIVEN, D., 304. 
NORTON, J., 10. 
NOYES, J., 10. 
" Now I lay me down to sleep," 46, 328. 

Numeral Letters, 1 6, 45, 47, 83-87, 215, 

" Our Days begin with trouble here," 224, 

" Parents' Duty to Children," 181, 325. 
PARKER, J., 311, 312. 
PARRIS, E. L., 307. 
Pater Noster, 4. 

PATTEN, N., 303, 315, 316, 317. 
Pennsylvania, Historical Society of, 22. 
PERKINS, J., 300. 

Perkins, William, 10. 

PERRY, Michael, inventory of, 18, 308. 

Pillory, Harris in, 13. 

Points and Stops observed in Reading, 220, 

Pope, or Man of Sin, 50, 247, 327. 
Prayer, Our Lord's, 5, 1 6, 25, 73, 161, 323. 

A short Morning, 342. 

A short Evening, 342. 

- for Children in the Morning, A, 
J77, 3 2 5- 

- at Night, A, 177, 325. 

of King Edward the Sixth, The, 
*75> 38, 323- 

Primer, History of the, 4-9. 

American, 19, 21, 49, 302, 306, 
307, 315. 

Bradford Fragment, 17, 22, 41, 

45, 3 2 3- 

- Catholic, 4. 

Church of England, 312 

Columbian, 19. 

Connecticut, 19, 308. 

- Goodly, 5. 

- Henry VHIth's, 4-6. 


Advertisements of, 1 8, 308-319. 

Authorship of, ( see also Harris) 

15-18, 44. 

Bibliography of, 299-319. 

- Binding of, I, 137. 

- Catechisms of, 37-44, 96-136, 

186-199, 2 78- 

- Collections of, 2O-22, 299-308. 

- Contents of, 1 6, 23-48, 323- 


- Destruction of, 20. 

Editions of, (see also Bibliogra- 
phy), 19. 

- Evangelization of, 29-30. 

- Extinction of, 51. 

- Function of, 4, 277-281. 

- Illustrations of , 48, 52, 56. 



Primer, NEW ENGLAND, In fTcstbamp- 
ton, Mass., 277. 

- Literary quality, I . 

- Numbers of, 19, 312-313. 

- Origin of, 1 6. 

- Position of, 17-19, 277. 
- Prototypes, 1 6. 

- Rarity of, 20-23. 

- Reprint of, 57-136. 

- Title of, 1 6, 19, 299-307. 

- Variation of, 23, 321-45. 
Variorum, 321-345. 

. 1 68 ? 1 6, 17. 

- 169 ? 17, 323. 

- 170118, 324. 

- 172722, 27, 29, 48, 57- 

136, 299, 327. 

- 173721, 4 8 > 5, 2 99 3 28 - 

- 173821, 299. 

- 1761 300. 

- 176221, 29, 31, 32, 48, 

5, 3> 33 a - 

- 176722, 300. 

- 1768 - 21, 300. 

- 177021, 49, 50, 301. 

1774 (Boston), 21, 22, 
301-2 ; (London) 22, 

- 1773 3 

- 1775 20 22 3 02 - 

- 1777 (Boston), 21, 49, 303; 

(Hartford), 22, 49, 

- 1781 (Boston), 21, 303, 

(Paisley), 22, 303. 

-- 1784 (Boston), 21, 304, 
(Salem), 21, 51, 
304; (Glasgow), 304. 

- 179121, 28, 304-5. 

- 1794 2I 2 9, 35- 

- 1795 22 > 35- 

- I79 6 35- 

- 179721, zz, 28, 306. 

Primer, NEW ENGLAND, 179821, 22, 

1806 29. 

- 1810 50. 

1812 31. 

- 181828, 50. 

- 1819 28, 29, 31. 

- 1825 28, 29, 32. 

- 1886 52. 

Undated editions, 21, 22, 29, 

49, 306-7. 

- New York Primer, 19, 311. 
Reformed, 5. 

- Royal, 47, 51, 314, 315, 333. 
Salisbury, 4. 

Unauthorized, 4. 

" Primer set forth by the Kings Majesty," 5. 

" Primer in Englishe," 5. 

" Proper Names for Men and Women," 46, 


Protestant Tutor See Tutor. 
Proverbs, Extracts from, 58, 140, 324. 

- Collection of, 48, 342. 
Proverbial Sentences, to be learned by Heart, 

241, 327. 
Public Occurrences, Harris prints, 14. 

Puritan, Mood of, I ; Judaism of, 2 ; Edu- 
cation the strength of, 2-3 ; Catechism 
used by, 9 ; Dread of Cross, 24, 26 ; 
Character, 281 ; Type of, 52. 

Queen of Cards, 50. 

Questions See Bible. 

" Remember thy Creator in the days of thy 
youth," 335. 

ROBINSON, John, 10. 

ROGERS, John, History of, 35-375 New 
England Primer account of, 36, 88, 
166; Children of, 36, 277; Prints of the 
burning of, (Frontispiece) I, 49, 88,166, 

Exhortation unto his Children, His- 
tory of, 35-37 ; quoted, I ; text of 
1559, 249-260; New England Primer 
text, 88-95, J 67-I755 Mentioned, 16, 
138, 323. 



ROGERS, Owyn, 35. 

Mathew. See John. 

"Romans, Chapter XII," 204, 276. 
Royal Oak, 26, 28-9. 

" Sabbath-breakers, Upon," 223, 326. 

Salvation, Puritan view of, 2. 

Separatists See Puritan. 

"Servants, The Duty of," 184, 325. 

SEWALL, Judge S., 280 ; Child of, quoted, 2. 

Sheldon Museum, 22, 301. 

SHEPARD, T., 10. 

SMITH, Robert, (see also Rogers' Exhortation), 

history of, 33, poems of, 34-5, 251. 
SOWER, C., 315. 
STONE, S., 10. 
STOUGHTON, William, 52. 
STYNER & Cist, 315. 

Syllabarium, 16, 23, 60-64, 142-151, 324. 
Ten Commandments See Commandments. 
"Thanksgiving before Meat," 178, 325. 

"after Meat," 178, 325. 

Tutor, The English, 138. 

New English, 18,22, 26, 27, 31, 

32, 45, 48, 50 (facsimile), 138-248, 
250, 324. 

Protestant, I5-I7> 45> 4 8 > J 3 8 > 

250, 323. 

WALTERS & Norman, 315. 
WASHINGTON, Stanzas concerning, 29 ; Ref- 
erence to, 47. 

WASTELL'S Microbiblon, 25. 

WATERMAN, J., 302. 

WATTS, S., Poems by, 46; Portrait of, 49. 

Cradle Hymn, 336. 

Divine Song, 331. 

Morning Prayer, 338. 

Evening Prayer, 338. 

WEBSTER, B., 316. 
N., 53. 

I., 20. 

WEIR, A., 303. 

Westhampton, Mass., The New England 
Primer in, 277. 

Westminster Assembly, 38, 39, 42. 

Catechism see Catechism. 

" What's right and good," 334. 
WHITE, Rev. John, 52. 
WHITE, J., 306. 

WILLARD, S., Complete Body of Divinity, 40 
WILLIAM III., 15, 27, 153, 
Woburn Public Libraij, 301. 
Women, Proper Names for, 46, 333. 
"Words fitly Spoken," 237, 327. 
WRIGHT & Young, 313. 

VANDERBILT, Cornelius, 299, 300, 301, 

"Young Folks, The Duty of," 182, 325. 
"Youth, Advice to," 335.